Romans 9:23

New Testament

20 But who indeed are you—a mere human being—to talk back to God? Does what is molded say to the molder, “Why have you made me like this?” 21 Has the potter no right to make from the same lump of clay one vessel for special use and another for ordinary use? 22 But what if God, willing to demonstrate his wrath and to make known his power, has endured with much patience the objects of wrath prepared for destruction? 23 And what if he is willing to make known the wealth of his glory on the objects of mercy that he has prepared beforehand for glory 24 even us, whom he has called, not only from the Jews but also from the Gentiles? 25 As he also says in Hosea:“I will call those who were not my people, ‘My people,’ and I will call her who was unloved, ‘My beloved.’”

4 Ezra 7:42

2 Esdras

38 serve, and whose commandment you have despised. Look on this side, then on that: here are rest and delight, there fire and torments.” 39 That is what he will say to them on the day of judgment. 40 ‘That day will be a day without sun, moon, or stars; without cloud, thunder, or lightning; wind, water, or air; darkness, evening, or morning; 41 without summer, spring, or winter; without heat, frost, or cold; without hail, rain, or dew; 42 without noonday, night, or dawn; without brightness, glow, or light. There shall be only the radiant glory of the Most High, by which all men will see everything determined for them. 43 It shall last as it were for a week of years. 44 Such is the order that I have appointed for the Judgment. I have given this revelation to you alone.’

 Notes and References

"... It is not until chapter 8 that Paul develops his particular understanding of eschatological glory as being “conformed to the image of his Son” (8:29–30). The one eschatological usage of “glory” subsequent to chapter 8, occurring twice in 9:23, probably has the more specific connotation of transformation into the image of Christ, since the description of the recipients of “the riches of his glory” as “objects (lit., vessels) of mercy whom he has prepared beforehand (προητοίμασεν) for glory” recalls the emphasis on predestination in 8:29–30.65 Paul’s usage of “glory” in Romans thus builds upon a Jewish apocalyptic usage seen in 2 Baruch and 4 Ezra, which does not include the concept of “the glory of Adam” or understand the reward of the righteous as a return to a primal perfection of humankind before the Fall. Rather, “glory” in 2 Baruch and 4 Ezra entails a physical transformation that will render the righteous unrecognizable as themselves. They will resemble the “splendor of the angels” (2 Baruch 51:5) or the sun and the stars (4 Ezra 7:97, 125; cf. 2 Baruch 51:10). Paul, in Romans 8, adapts this Jewish apocalyptic notion of glorification to his Christology by imagining a transformation of believers at the parousia into images of the glory of the resurrected Christ ..."

Hogan, Karina M. "The Apocalyptic Eschatology of Romans" The Jewish Apocalyptic Tradition and the Shaping of New Testament Thought, edited by Loren T. Stuckenbruck (pp. 171-173) Fortress Press, 2017

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