Romans 9:25

New Testament

22 But what if God, willing to demonstrate his wrath and to make known his power, has endured with much patience the objects of wrath prepared for destruction? 23 And what if he is willing to make known the wealth of his glory on the objects of mercy that he has prepared beforehand for glory— 24 even us, whom he has called, not only from the Jews but also from the Gentiles? 25 As he also says in Hosea: “I will call those who were not my people, ‘My people,’ and I will call her who was unloved, ‘My beloved.’” 26 “And in the very place where it was said to them, ‘You are not my people,’ there they will be called ‘sons of the living God.’” 27 And Isaiah cries out on behalf of Israel, “Though the number of the children of Israel are as the sand of the sea, only the remnant will be saved, 28 for the Lord will execute his sentence on the earth completely and quickly.”

Kiddushin 36a

Babylonian Talmud

The Gemara asks: And both Abaye and Rava, what do they derive from this verse: “You are the sons to the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 14:1)? According to the first explanation of Isi’s opinion, the exclusion of women is derived from this phrase, whereas they derive that halakha from a different source. The Gemara answers: This verse is necessary for that which is taught in a baraita: The verse: “You are the sons to the Lord your God,” indicates that when you act like sons and cleave to the Holy One, Blessed be He, you are called sons, but when you do not act like sons you are not called sons. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And Rabbi Meir says: Either way you are still called sons, as it is stated: “They are foolish sons” (Jeremiah 4:22). And it also states: “Sons in whom there is no faithfulness” (Deuteronomy 32:20). And it states: “A seed of evildoers, sons who deal corruptly” (Isaiah 1:4). And it states: “And it shall come to pass that, instead of what was said to them: You are not My people, it shall be said to them: Sons of the living God” (Hosea 2:1).

 Notes and References

"... This completes the explicit statement of the problem [Paul] is dealing with in Chapters 9-11 — 'In the case of the Jews, has the Word of God failed?' (see 9:1-11:36). But the question is raised in a way that anticipates the happy conclusion, 'No, it has not failed.' ... Here, where his focus is on the Jewish nation as a whole, in its capacity as God's people, Israel (on this important term, see ll:26), he introduces the concept of the faithful 'remnant,' an idea which pervades the Tanakh (see verses 27-28, 11:1-6). In fact, the Tanakh warns that in certain cases of disobedience a person may be 'cut off from among his people' (see Acts 13:38-39). That the notion was accepted in non-Messianic Judaism can be inferred from the fact that in the Mishna the well-known statement, 'All Israel has a place in the world to come,' (Sanhedrin 10:1, quoted more fully at 11:26) is immediately followed by a list of Israelites who have no place in the world to come. It should not be thought that God is quick to cast away his sons, meaning the Jewish people (Exodus 4:22). Keeping in mind 8:14-15, 9:24-25 and 11:1-6, consider this passage from the Talmud (Kiddushin 36a) ..."

Stern, David H. Jewish New Testament Commentary (p. 389) Jewish New Testament Publications, 1994

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