Romans 13:9

New Testament

7 Pay everyone what is owed: taxes to whom taxes are due, revenue to whom revenue is due, respect to whom respect is due, honor to whom honor is due. 8 Owe no one anything, except to love one another, for the one who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. 9 For the commandments, “Do not commit adultery, do not murder, do not steal, do not covet,” (and if there is any other commandment) are summed up in this, “Love your neighbor as yourself.” 10 Love does no wrong to a neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law. 11 And do this because we know the time, that it is already the hour for us to awake from sleep, for our salvation is now nearer than when we became believers.

Genesis Rabbah 24:7


Rabbi Tanchuma said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Menachem in the name of Rav said, "Adam taught all the craftsmen, as it says, 'And the craftsmen, they are adam-ic,' (usually, 'merely human,' Isaiah 44:11) i.e. they are from Adam." The Rabbis taught: "Even the ruling of manuscripts, Adam taught, as it says, 'This is the book,' i.e. it and its ruling, and continues, 'On the day that God created Adam;'" (Genesis 5:1) this accords with that which Rabbi Elazar b. Azaryah said, "Three wonders did God do on that day: On that day he created him, on that day he attended him, and on that day he gave him offspring." Ben Azzai said: “These are the generations of Adam" is a great principle in the Torah. Rabbi Akiva said: "This is a great principle of the Torah: 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself,' (Lev. 19:18). meaning that one should not say, 'Since I am scorned, I should scorn my fellow as well; since I have been cursed, I will curse my fellow as well.'" Rabbi Tanchuma says, “If you do this -- know that God made the person you put to shame in His own image."

 Notes and References

"... Yeshua said that all the Torah and the Prophets depend on two commandments — loving God, as commanded in the Shema (Deuteronomy 6:5), and loving one's neighbor as oneself (Leviticus 19:18); see Mk 12:28-34. [Paul] quotes four of the five commandments in the "Second Table" of the Law, those which concern behavior toward other people; Yeshua did the same (Mt 19:16-20). Rabbi Chiyya equated Leviticus 19:18 with one of the "Second Table" commandments, the prohibition against coveting (Leviticus Rabbah 24:5); likewise Rabbi Akiva recognized Leviticus 19:18 as a great principle of Torah (Genesis Rabbah 24:7). [Paul's] point in these verses is not to abrogate specific commands but to show that the principle of loving one's neighbor, which is the pervading theme of everything from 12:9 till here, must underlie all halakhic applications and will, when appropriated by the power of the Holy Spirt lead to right behavior in daily life. This is how love is the fullness of Torah—not by superseding it, but through being the beginning, the end and the motivating force at work in it ..."

Stern, David H. Jewish New Testament Commentary (pp. 429-430) Jewish New Testament Publications, 1994

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