New Testament

Matthew 22:15-22

15 Then the Pharisees went out and planned together to entrap him with his own words. 16 They sent to him their disciples along with the Herodians, saying, “Teacher, we know that you are truthful and teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. You do not court anyone’s favor because you show no partiality. 17 Tell us then, what do you think? Is it right to pay taxes to Caesar or not?”

18 But Jesus realized their evil intentions and said, “Hypocrites! Why are you testing me? 19 Show me the coin used for the tax.” So they brought him a denarius. 20 Jesus said to them, “Whose image is this, and whose inscription?” 21 They replied, “Caesar’s.” He said to them, “Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.” 22 Now when they heard this they were stunned, and they left him and went away.

Midrash Tanchuma Noach 10

Scripture says elsewhere in reference to this verse: I counsel thee: keep the king’s command, and that in regard of the oath of God. Be not hasty to go out of His presence. The Holy One, blessed be He, said to Israel: If a government imposes harsh decrees upon you, I adjure you not to rebel against that government but rather to keep the king’s command. However, if the government should decree that you must violate the Torah and its commandments, do not hearken unto it. Say to that government: “I will keep the king’s command in whatever you desire, but with regard to an oath to God, Scripture states: Be not hasty to go out of His presence.” They want you to violate the commandments so that you will ultimately repudiate the Holy One, blessed be He. Hence, it says: In regard of the oath of God, be not hasty to go forth from His presence.