3 When the wine ran out, Jesus’ mother said to him, “They have no wine left.” 4 Jesus replied, “Woman, why are you saying this to me? My time has not yet come.” 5 His mother told the servants, “Whatever he tells you, do it.” 6 Now there were six stone water jars there for Jewish ceremonial washing, each holding 20 or 30 gallons. 7 Jesus told the servants, “Fill the water jars with water.” So they filled them up to the very top. 8 Then he told them, “Now draw some out and take it to the head steward,” and they did. 9 When the head steward tasted the water that had been turned to wine, not knowing where it came from (though the servants who had drawn the water knew), he called the bridegroom 10 and said to him, “Everyone serves the good wine first, and then the cheaper wine when the guests are drunk. You have kept the good wine until now!”
Mishnah Kelim 10:1Mishnah
The following vessels protect their contents when they have a tightly fitting cover: those made of cattle dung, of stone, of clay, of earthenware, of sodium carbonate, of the bones of a fish or of its skin, or of the bones of any animal of the sea or of its skin, and wooden vessels that are always clean. They protect whether the covers close their mouths or their sides, whether they stand on their bottoms or lean on their sides. If they were turned over with their mouths downwards they afford protection to all that is beneath them to the nethermost deep. Rabbi Eliezer declares this unclean. These protect everything, except that an earthen vessel protects only foods, liquids and earthen vessels.
Notes and References
"... In John, Jesus alludes to the halakic regulations that allow for circumcision on the Sabbath; is aware of the custom of using stone jars for the waters of purification; knows the Palestinian manna traditions of the Jewish haggadah and the significance of the last day of the Feast of Tabernacles and the water poured in front of the altar. The designations used for Jesus reflect the categories that come from the Scriptures and the world of first-century Judaism ..."
Thompson, Marianne M. "Word of God, Messiah of Israel, Savior of the World" in Gaventa, Beverly Roberts, and Richard B. Hays, ed. Seeking the Identity of Jesus: A Pilgrimage (p. 170) William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2008