18 I have seen their behavior, but I will heal them. I will lead them, and I will provide comfort to them and those who mourn with them. 19 I am the one who gives them reason to celebrate. Complete prosperity is available both to those who are far away and those who are nearby,” says the Lord, “and I will heal them. 20 But the wicked are like a surging sea that is unable to be quiet; its waves toss up mud and sand. 21 There will be no prosperity, ” says my God, “for the wicked.”
11 Woe to them! For they have traveled down Cain’s path, and because of greed have abandoned themselves to Balaam’s error; hence, they will certainly perish in Korah’s rebellion. 12 These men are dangerous reefs at your love feasts, feasting without reverence, feeding only themselves. They are waterless clouds, carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit—twice dead, uprooted; 13 wild sea waves, spewing out the foam of their shame; wayward stars for whom the utter depths of eternal darkness have been reserved. 14 Now Enoch, the seventh in descent beginning with Adam, even prophesied of them, saying, “Look! The Lord is coming with thousands and thousands of his holy ones, 15 to execute judgment on all, and to convict every person of all their thoroughly ungodly deeds that they have committed, and of all the harsh words that ungodly sinners have spoken against him.”
Notes and References
"... The third illustration shifts to the bad effects these false teachers have rather than the good effects they do not have. They are like a wave that brings sea weed and garbage up on the shore (Isaiah 57:20). The metaphor breaks down with aischynas: they are foaming with shameful deeds, the overflow of their evil character. They are also like wandering stars (1 Enoch 18:13-16; 21:1-6: 88:1-3) which is a likely reference to planets that appear to wander from their course or to comets or meteors that manifest an apparently erratic course. 'Wandering stars' may be an allusion to fallen angels, who are closely associated with the stars in Jewish tradition. In any case, God has reserved for them the gloom of eternal darkness, in contrast to the earlier eternal fire (Tobit 14:10; 1 Enoch 63:6). Clearly the author intends this as a metaphorical description of life without God forever, not a literal description of what hell is like (it cannot be both utterly dark and utterly light forever). The teachers are thus accused of disorderly, useless and harmful conduct, of acting like irrational and amoral animals. First Enoch 80.6 describes all of nature becoming disorderly and lawless just before the eschatological end of things. And the fate of such star beings is utter and outer darkness (1 Enoch 18, 20). The rhetorical intent and effect of this colorful language was to create a negative emotional response, to create pathos, this case appealing to one's sense of fear and horror at betrayal and shameful behavior. The six metaphors of vv. 12-13 provide a powerful series of mental images and associations which seriously diminish the ethos of the sectarians especially with regard to their leadership and teaching roles ..."
Witherington, Ben Letters and Homilies for Jewish Christians: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary on Hebrews, James and Jude (p. 622) InterVarsity Press, 2010
Thank you for your submission!