Galatians 4:26

New Testament

21 Tell me, you who want to be under the law, do you not understand the law? 22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by the slave woman and the other by the free woman. 23 But one, the son by the slave woman, was born by natural descent, while the other, the son by the free woman, was born through the promise. 24 These things may be treated as an allegory, for these women represent two covenants. One is from Mount Sinai bearing children for slavery; this is Hagar. 25 Now Hagar represents Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children. 26 But the Jerusalem above is free, and she is our mother. 27 For it is written:“Rejoice, O barren woman who does not bear children; break forth and shout, you who have no birth pains,because the children of the desolate woman are more numerousthan those of the woman who has a husband.” 28 But you, brothers and sisters, are children of the promise like Isaac. 29 But just as at that time the one born by natural descent persecuted the one born according to the Spirit, so it is now. Source

Date: 54-55 C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

4 Ezra 10:7

Pseudepigrapha (2 Esdras)

3 I controlled my grief till the evening of the following day. When they had all ceased urging me to take comfort and control my grief, I rose and stole away in the night, and came here, as you can see, to this field. 4 I have made up my mind never to go back to the town, but to stay here eating nothing and drinking nothing, and to continue my mourning and fasting unbroken till I die.’ 5 At that I interrupted the train of my thoughts, and I spoke sternly to the woman: 6 ‘You are the most foolish woman in the world,’ I said; ‘are you blind to the grief and sufferings of our nation? 7 It is for the sorrow and humiliation of Zion, the mother of us all, that you should mourn so deeply; 8 you should share in our common mourning and sorrow. But you are deep in sorrow for your one son. 9 Ask the earth and she will tell you; she must mourn for the thousands and thousands who come to birth upon her. Source

Date: 70-100 C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

Poorthuis, Marcel & Schwartz, Joshua A Holy People: Jewish and Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (p. 100) Brill, 2006

Kwok, Hon Lee The Use of Isaiah in the Pauline Letters with Special Reference to His Self-Conception of being an Apostle to the Gentiles (p. 84) The University of Edinburgh, 2009

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.

Poorthuis, Marcel & Schwartz, Joshua A Holy People: Jewish and Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (p. 100) Brill, 2006

Kwok, Hon Lee The Use of Isaiah in the Pauline Letters with Special Reference to His Self-Conception of being an Apostle to the Gentiles (p. 84) The University of Edinburgh, 2009

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.