Ezekiel 34:13

Hebrew Bible

11 “‘For this is what the Sovereign Lord says: Look, I myself will search for my sheep and seek them out. 12 As a shepherd seeks out his flock when he is among his scattered sheep, so I will seek out my flock. I will rescue them from all the places where they have been scattered on a cloudy, dark day. 13 I will bring them out from among the peoples and gather them from foreign countries; I will bring them to their own land. I will feed them on the mountains of Israel, by the streams and all the inhabited places of the land. 14 In a good pasture I will feed them; the mountain heights of Israel will be their pasture. There they will lie down in a lush pasture, and they will feed on rich grass on the mountains of Israel. 15 I myself will feed my sheep and I myself will make them lie down, declares the Sovereign Lord.

John 10:16

New Testament

14 “I am the good shepherd. I know my own and my own know me— 15 just as the Father knows me and I know the Father—and I lay down my life for the sheep. 16 I have other sheep that do not come from this sheepfold. I must bring them too, and they will listen to my voice, so that there will be one flock and one shepherd. 17 This is why the Father loves me—because I lay down my life, so that I may take it back again. 18 No one takes it away from me, but I lay it down of my own free will. I have the authority to lay it down, and I have the authority to take it back again. This commandment I received from my Father.”

 Notes and References

"... Although Ezekiel insists that there will be “one shepherd” (Ezekiel 34:23), he actually describes both God and “my servant, David” as the shepherds of Israel. David’s rule, however, is clearly secondary to God’s in Ezekiel; David rules as vassal prince over Israel, while God is the suzerain king. John’s allusion to Ezekiel allows him to connect Jesus to both “good shepherds” of Ezekiel 34. David is God’s shepherd, and he will do the same things that God does: he will shepherd the people and be their shepherd and ruler (Ezekiel 34:23-24, compare 37:22-24). Ezekiel’s David will be the “one shepherd” (34:23, 37:23) and the one ruler (37:22) over the one people (37:22); Jesus will be the one shepherd over the one flock (John 10:16). John adapts the material from Ezekiel to explain his christology: Jesus is God’s faithful representative who fully carries out God’s work (John 10:25, 37-38); as God appoints David over God’s sheep, so God gives the sheep to Jesus (John 10:29); as God makes a covenant with David (Ezekiel 34:25 LXX), God knows, loves, appoints and commands Jesus (John 10:15, 17, 18) ..."

Manning, Gary T. Shepherd, Vine, and Bones: The Use of Ezekiel in the Gospel of John (pp. 1-31) T&T Clark, 2010

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