Dead Sea Scrolls


Words of the Luminaries

[Rememb]er, O Lo[r]d that... Thou hast fashioned A[dam], our [f]ather, in the likeness of [Thy] glory; Thou didst breathe [a breath of life] into his nostrils and, with understanding, knowledge [Thou didst give him] ... Thou didst make [him] to rule [over the Gar]den of Eden which Thou didst plant... and to walk in the land of glory... he guarded. And Thou didst enjoin him not to st[ray ...]... he is flesh and to dust [he will return (?)] ... And Thou, Thou knowest... for everlasting generations ... a living God and Thy hand ... man in the ways of... [to fill the] earth with [vi]olence and to shed [innocent blood] ...

Date: 160 B.C.E. - 100 B.C.E.
* Dates are based on scholarly estimates

Leviticus Rabbah 20:2


Another exposition of the text, AFTER THE DEATH OF THE TWO SONS OF AARON. R. Levi opened his discourse by citing: I say unto the arrogant (laholelim): Deal not arrogantly (Ps. Lxxv, 5). ‘Laholelim’ means ‘to those who create confusion’, those whose heart is full of evil intrigues. R. Levi used to call them ‘woe-makers’ because they bring woe into the world. And to the wicked: Lift not up the horn (Ps. loc. cit.). The Holy One, blessed be He, said to the wicked: ‘The righteous were never happy in this world of Mine and you seek to be happy!’ Resh Lakish, in the name of R. Simeon the son of Menasya, said: The apple of Adam’s heel outshone the globe of the sun; how much more so the brightness of his face! Nor need you wonder. In the ordinary way if a person makes salvers, one for himself and one for his household, whose will he make more beautiful? Not his own? Similarly, Adam was created for the service of the Holy One, blessed be He, and the globe of the sun for the service of mankind.

Date: 500 C.E.
* Dates are based on scholarly estimates