Dead Sea Scrolls


4QMMT/The Halakhic Letter

And it [shall come to pas]swhen all these {things} [be]fall you in the en[d] of days, the blessing and the curse, [then you will call them to mind] and retu[rn to Him with a]ll your heart and all your soul at the end of days. [And it is written in the Book] of Moses and in the Boo[ks of the Prophet]s that there shall come ... [and the blessings came] in the days of Solomon the son of David. And the curses came from in the days of Jeroboam the son of Nebat until Jerusalem and Zedekiah king of Judah were exiled that He will b[rin]g them to ... And we recognize that some of the blessings and curses which are written in the B[ook of Mo]ses have come. And this is at the end of days when they will come back to Israel for [ever] ... and shall not turn back-war [ds]. And the wicked shall act wickedly and ... Remember the kings of Israel and understand their works that each of them who feared [the To]rah was saved from troubles, and to those who were seekers of the Law, their iniquities were [par]doned. Remember David, that he was a man of piety, and that he was also saved from many troubles and pardoned. We have also written to you (sing.) concerning some of the observances of the Law (miqsat ma‘ase ha-Torab), which we think are beneficial to you and your people. For [we have noticed] that prudence and knowledge of the Law are with you. Understand all these (matters) and ask Him to straighten your counsel and put you far away from thoughts of evil and the counsel of Belial. Consequently, you will rejoice at the end of time when you discover that some of our sayings are true. And it will be reckoned for you as righteousness when you perform what is right and good before Him, for your own good and for that of Israel.

Date: 150 B.C.E. - 100 B.C.E.
* Dates are based on scholarly estimates
New Testament

Romans 4:9

1 What then shall we say that Abraham, our ancestor according to the flesh, has discovered regarding this matter? 2 For if Abraham was declared righteous by works, he has something to boast about—but not before God. 3 For what does the scripture say? “Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness.” 4 Now to the one who works, his pay is not credited due to grace but due to obligation. 5 But to the one who does not work, but believes in the one who declares the ungodly righteous, his faith is credited as righteousness. 6 So even David himself speaks regarding the blessedness of the man to whom God credits righteousness apart from works: 7 “Blessed are those whose lawless deeds are forgiven, and whose sins are covered; 8 blessed is the one against whom the Lord will never count sin.” 9 Is this blessedness then for the circumcision or also for the uncircumcision? For we say, “faith was credited to Abraham as righteousness.” 10 How then was it credited to him? Was he circumcised at the time, or not? No, he was not circumcised but uncircumcised!

Date: 55-58 C.E.
* Dates are based on scholarly estimates