Wisdom of Solomon 2:24


20 Let us condemn him to a shameful death, for, according to what he says, he will be protected." 21 Thus they reasoned, but they were led astray, for their wickedness blinded them, 22 and they did not know the secret purposes of God, nor hoped for the wages of holiness, nor discerned the prize for blameless souls; 23 for God created us for incorruption, and made us in the image of his own eternity, 24 but through the devil's envy death entered the world, and those who belong to his company experience it.

Yevamot 16a

Babylonian Talmud

Out of courtesy, they did not wish to broach the subject immediately. Rather, they began to encircle him with deliberations on different halakhot, until they came to the case of the rival wife of a daughter. They said to him: What is the halakha with regard to the rival wife of a daughter? He said that it is a matter of dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel. They asked him: According to whose statement is the halakha? He said to them: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. They said to him: But didn’t they say in your name that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai? He said to them: Did you hear that Dosa ben Harkinas issued this ruling, or did you hear that it was stated by ben Harkinas? They said to him: On your life, Rabbi, we heard simply ben Harkinas. He said to them: If so, it is no wonder, as I have a younger brother who is the firstborn of the Satan, i.e., he is extremely sharp and as brazen as a demon. And his name is Yonatan, and he is among the disciples of Shammai. It is he who issued this ruling.

 Notes and References

"... attacks on Bet Shammai have been misinterpreted and turned against the Jewish people as a whole, who — as Jesus himself foretold — have nullified the teachings of Shammai's School. We might first refer to Jesus' rebuke to the Pharisees (John 8:44): 'You are of your father the devil, and your will is to do your father's desires.' This is echoed elsewhere, as, for example (Revelation 2:9, 3:9), 'the synagogue of Satan.' This has led to much antisemitism, as well as Church decrees against Jews. No one seems to have noticed that the first century C.E. Sage Dosa ben Harkinas, criticizing his brother Jonathan for having ruled in accordance with Bet Shammai in an important case concerning levirate marriage, calls him 'the first-born of Satan' (Yevamot 16a). In other words, the rabbis of the first century C.E. were accustomed to refer to the Pharisees of Bet Shammai as descendants of, or followers of, the devil ..."

Falk, Harvey Jesus the Pharisee: A New Look at the Jewishness of Jesus (p. 118) Wipf and Stock, 2003

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