1 Love righteousness, you rulers of the earth, think of the Lord in goodness and seek him with sincerity of heart; 2 because he is found by those who do not put him to the test, and manifests himself to those who do not distrust him. 3 For perverse thoughts separate people from God, and when his power is tested, it exposes the foolish; 4 because wisdom will not enter a deceitful soul, or dwell in a body enslaved to sin. 5 For a holy and disciplined spirit will flee from deceit, and will leave foolish thoughts behind, and will be ashamed at the approach of unrighteousness. 6 For wisdom is a kindly spirit, but will not free blasphemers from the guilt of their words; because God is witness of their inmost feelings, and a true observer of their hearts, and a hearer of their tongues.7 Because the spirit of the Lord has filled the world, and that which holds all things together knows what is said, 8 therefore those who utter unrighteous things will not escape notice, and justice, when it punishes, will not pass them by. 9 For inquiry will be made into the counsels of the ungodly, and a report of their words will come to the Lord, to convict them of their lawless deeds; 10 because a jealous ear hears all things, and the sound of grumbling does not go unheard.
Date: 100-50 B.C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)
Tertullian Concerning the Soul 15
For, when one reads of God as being the searcher and witness of the heart; when His prophet is reproved by His discovering to him the secrets of the heart; when God Himself anticipates in His people the thoughts of their heart, Why do you think evil in your hearts? When David prays Create in me a clean heart, O God, and Paul declares, With the heart man believes unto righteousness, and John says, By his own heart is each man condemned; when, lastly, he who looks on a woman so as to lust after her, has already committed adultery with her in his heart, then both points are cleared fully up, that there is a directing faculty of the soul, with which the purpose of God may agree; in other words, a supreme principle of intelligence and vitality (for where there is intelligence, there must be vitality), and that it resides in that most precious part of our body to which God especially looks: so that you must not suppose, with Heraclitus, that this sovereign faculty of which we are treating is moved by some external force; nor with Moschion, that it floats about through the whole body; nor with Plato, that it is enclosed in the head; nor with Zenophanes, that it culminates in the crown of the head; nor that it reposes in the brain, according to the opinion of Hippocrates; nor around the basis of the brain, as Herophilus thought; nor in the membranes thereof, as Strato and Erasistratus said; nor in the space between the eyebrows, as Strato the physician held; nor within the enclosure of the breast, according to Epicurus: but rather, as the Egyptians have always taught, especially such of them as were accounted the expounders of sacred truths; in accordance, too, with that verse of Orpheus or Empedocles: Man has his (supreme) sensation in the blood around his heart.