Targum Ruth 1:17


16 But Ruth said: "Do not coax me to leave you, to turn from following you, for I desire to become a proselyte." Said Naomi: "We are commanded to keep the Sabbaths and holidays, not to walk more than two thousand cubits." Said Ruth: "Wheresoever you go I shall go." Said Naomi: "We are commanded not to spend the night together with non-Jews." Said Ruth: "Wherever you lodge I shall lodge." Said Naomi: "We are commanded to keep six hundred thirteen commandments." Said Ruth: "That which your people keep, that I shall keep, as though they had been my people before this." Said Naomi: "We are commanded not to worship idolatry." Said Ruth: "Your God is my God." 17 Said Naomi: "We have four methods of capital punishment for the guilty -- stoning, burning with fire, death by the sword, and hanging on a tree." Said Ruth: "To whatever death you are subject I shall be subject." Said Naomi: "We have two cemeteries." Said Ruth: "There shall I be buried. And do not continue to speak any further. May the Lord do thus unto me and more if [even] death will separate me from you."

Galatians 3:13

New Testament

10 For all who rely on doing the works of the law are under a curse because it is written, “Cursed is everyone who does not keep on doing everything written in the book of the law.” 11 Now it is clear no one is justified before God by the law because the righteous one will live by faith. 12 But the law is not based on faith, but the one who does the works of the law will live by them. 13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us (because it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree”) 14 in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham would come to the Gentiles, so that we could receive the promise of the Spirit by faith.

 Notes and References

"... In his Letter to the Galatians, Paul uses the phrase "hanging upon a tree" in order to describe Jesus' execution. The wording itself comes from Deuteronomy 21:23, and Paul applies it to argue that, in being crucified, Jesus was subject to the curse of "everyone who hangs upon a tree" (Gal 3:13, which follows the LXX in its wording). The argument assumes that crucifixion carries with it some sanction of Judaic law. This is just what we find in Targum Ruth when Naomi says, 'We have four kinds of death for the guilty: stoning with stones, burning with fire, execution by the sword, and hanging upon a tree' (1:17) ..."

Chilton, Bruce "From Aramaic Paraphrase to Greek Testament" in Evans, Craig A. (ed.) From Prophecy to Testament: The Function of the Old Testament in the New (pp. 23-43) Hendrickson Publishers, 2004

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