Targum Psalm 91:13


5 Be not afraid of the terror of demons who walk at night, of the arrow of the angel of death that he looses during the day; 6 Of the death that walks in darkness, of the band of demons that attacks at noon. 7 You will invoke the holy name; a thousand will fall at your left side, and ten thousand at your right; they will not come near you to do harm. 8 Only with your eyes you will watch, and you will see the wicked as they are destroyed. 9 Solomon answered and said: “For you are my confidence, O Lord; in the highest dwelling place you have placed the house of your presence.” 10 The lord of the world responded and thus he said: “No harm shall happen to you; and no plague or demon shall come near to your tents.” 11 For he will command his angels concerning you to guard you in all your ways. 12 They will lift you up by their strength, lest you stumble on the evil impulse, which is likened to the stones at your feet. 13 You will trample on the lions’ whelp and the adder; you will tread down the lion and the viper.

Luke 10:19

New Testament

15 And you, Capernaum, will you be exalted to heaven? No, you will be thrown down to Hades! 16 “The one who listens to you listens to me, and the one who rejects you rejects me, and the one who rejects me rejects the one who sent me.” 17 Then the seventy-two returned with joy, saying, “Lord, even the demons submit to us in your name!” 18 So he said to them, “I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven. 19 Look, I have given you authority to tread on snakes and scorpions and on the full force of the enemy, and nothing will hurt you. 20 Nevertheless, do not rejoice that the spirits submit to you, but rejoice that your names stand written in heaven.”

 Notes and References

"... Jesus assures his disciples that he has given them the 'authority to tread on snakes and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy' (Luke 10:19). Jesus is alluding to Psalm 91:13 ("You will tread on the lion and the adder"), but as this passage was interpreted in pseudepigraphal (Testament of Levi 18:10-12; Testament of Simeon 6:6; Testament of Zebulon 9:8) and targumic tradition (Targum Psalms 91:5-6, 10, 13). The demonic interpretation of Psalm 91, attested at Qumran (compare 11Q11), also clarifies the function of Psalm 91:11-12 in the temptation narratives (Matthew 4:5-7; Luke 4:9-12). Moreover, Jesus' declaration that he 'watched Satan fall from heaven like a flash of lightning' (Luke 10:18) also coheres with pseudepigraphal (Testament of Solomon 20:16-17; 2 Enoch 29:5) and targumic (Targum Isaiah 14:12) tradition ..."

Evans, Craig A. Ancient Texts for New Testament Studies: A Guide to the Background Literature (p. 71) Hendrickson Publishers, 2005

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