Targum Psalm 68:19

Targum

18 The chariots of God are two myriads of burning fire, two thousand angels guiding them; the presence of the Lord rests on them, on the mountain of Sinai, in holiness. 19 You ascended to the firmament, O prophet Moses; you captured captives, you taught the words of Torah, you gave gifts to the sons of men, and even the stubborn who are converted turn in repentance, [and] the glorious presence of the Lord God abides upon them. 20 Blessed be the Lord, every day he weighs us down, adding commandments to commandments; the mighty one, who is our redemption and our helper forever. 21 God is for us might and redemption; and from God the Lord death and loss of breath are inflicted on the wicked through suffocation. Source

Date: 200-600 C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

Ephesians 4:8

New Testament

4 There is one body and one Spirit, just as you too were called to the one hope of your calling, 5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism, 6 one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all. 7 But to each one of us grace was given according to the measure of Christ’s gift. 8 Therefore it says, “When he ascended on high he captured captives; he gave gifts to men.” 9 Now what is the meaning of “he ascended,” except that he also descended to the lower regions, namely, the earth? Source

Date: 60-70 C.E. (If authentic), 90-100 C.E. (If anonymous) (based on scholarly estimates)

"... The first thing I want to take note of is that in the NT quote, the verb used to translate “He led captive” is the 3rd ps. sg. aor. act. ind., whereas in the LXX it is the 2nd ps. sg. aor. act. ind., which corresponds exactly with the Hebrew, “Thou hast led captive”. The natural question is, why is there a difference in the persons, from “Thou hast led” in both the Hebrew and LXX, to “He led captive” in the Greek NT? ...

... While seeming to avoid literal quotation from the Targum, Paul couldn’t hide his use of a Targumic method of exegesis as well as targumic concepts in dealing with OT text making them serve his own theology."

Diab, Issa Paul's Use of the Targum (pp. 1-11) Near East School of Theology, 2014

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.

"... The first thing I want to take note of is that in the NT quote, the verb used to translate “He led captive” is the 3rd ps. sg. aor. act. ind., whereas in the LXX it is the 2nd ps. sg. aor. act. ind., which corresponds exactly with the Hebrew, “Thou hast led captive”. The natural question is, why is there a difference in the persons, from “Thou hast led” in both the Hebrew and LXX, to “He led captive” in the Greek NT? ...

... While seeming to avoid literal quotation from the Targum, Paul couldn’t hide his use of a Targumic method of exegesis as well as targumic concepts in dealing with OT text making them serve his own theology."

Diab, Issa Paul's Use of the Targum (pp. 1-11) Near East School of Theology, 2014

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.