Jonathan Isaiah 65:6
3 A people that provoketh my Word to anger continually to my face; that sacrificeth in gardens to idols, and offereth aromatic spices upon bricks; 4 Who dwell in houses, which are built of the dust of graves, with the dead bodies of the sons of men they dwell, which eat swine's flesh, and broth of abominable things is in their vessels; 5 Who say, Stand by thyself, come not near to me; because I am purer than thou. These their provocations are as smoke before me: their re compense shall be in hell, where the fire burneth all the day. 6 Behold, it is written before me: I will not give unto them prolongation in this life; but I will recompense unto them the wages for their sins, and deliver their bodies to the second death. 7 Your sins and the sins of your fathers to gether are revealed before me, saith the Lord, which have offered incense upon the mountains, and blasphemed me upon the hills: therefore will I give the reward of their former works into their bosom.
8 “To the angel of the church in Smyrna write the following: “This is the solemn pronouncement of the one who is the first and the last, the one who was dead, but came to life: 9 ‘I know the distress you are suffering and your poverty (but you are rich). I also know the slander against you by those who call themselves Jews and really are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. 10 Do not be afraid of the things you are about to suffer. The devil is about to have some of you thrown into prison so you may be tested, and you will experience suffering for ten days. Remain faithful even to the point of death, and I will give you the crown that is life itself. 11 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. The one who conquers will in no way be harmed by the second death.’
Notes and References
"... This phrase 'second death' (deuteros thanatos) is used four times in the Apocalypse, but is found nowhere in Jewish literature outside the targums. An expression used four times (Apocalypse 2:11; 20:6, 14; 21:8) must have been current coinage when the Apocalypse was being composed, in certain circles at least. Since we find the designation used in contexts speaking of such Jewish and Christian themes as the resurrection, general judgment and eternal punishment, it is evident that its origins are not to be sought in Hellenistic religion. The expression must have come from Judaism, unless it was coined by Christianity ... The final text to be considered (Targum Isaiah 65:15) is in a context in which the divisions of the Jewish community seem quite clear. There are those addressed by Yahweh as "you" (unfaithful ones) and others as "my servants" (Isaiah 65:13-16) ... The Targum renders faithfully, apart from paraphrasing the ending as: 'and the Lord will slay you with the second death and his servants the righteous he shall call by a different name' ..."
McNamara, Martin Targum and Testament Revisited Aramaic Paraphrases of the Hebrew Bible: A Light on the New Testament (pp. 223-226) William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2010
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