Jonathan Isaiah 65:15

Targum

13 Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Behold, my righteous servants shall eat, but ye, wicked, shall be hungry: behold, my righteous servants shall drink, but ye, wicked, shall be thirsty: behold, my righteous servants shall rejoice, but ye, wicked, shall be ashamed: 14 Behold, my righteous servants shall sing for joy of heart, but ye shall cry for sorrow of heart, and ye shall howl for vexation of spirit. 15 And ye shall leave your name for a curse to my chosen: for the Lord God shall slay you with the second death, and call His righteous servants by another name: 16 That he who blesseth in the earth shall bless by the God of the covenant, and he that sweareth in the earth shall swear by the God of the covenant; because, the former troubles shall be forgotten, and because they shall be hidden from before me. 17 For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remem bered, neither shall they come into mind. Source

Date: 200-300 C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

Revelation 2:11

New Testament

10 Do not be afraid of the things you are about to suffer. The devil is about to have some of you thrown into prison so you may be tested, and you will experience suffering for ten days. Remain faithful even to the point of death, and I will give you the crown that is life itself. 11 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. The one who conquers will in no way be harmed by the second death.’ 12 “To the angel of the church in Pergamum write the following: “This is the solemn pronouncement of the one who has the sharp double-edged sword: Source

Date: 92-96 C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

"... This 'second death' is spoken of also in the Apocalypse (2:11; 20:6), but is found nowhere in Jewish literature outside the targums. Furthermore, there are positive indications that in at least one passage where he uses the term (20:14), John has passed from the biblical text to the targumic rendering of Isaiah 65:15,17-19.

This phrase 'second death' (deuteros thanatos) is used four times in the Apocalypse, but is found nowhere in Jewish literature outside the targums. An expression used four times (Apocalypse 2:11; 20:6, 14; 21:8) must have been current coinage when the Apocalypse was being com­posed, in certain circles at least. Since we find the designation used in contexts speaking of such Jewish and Christian themes as the resurrection, general judgment and eternal punishment, it is evident that its origins are not to be sought in Hellenistic religion. The expression must have come from Judaism, unless it was coined by Christianity."

McNamara, Martin Targum and Testament Revisited Aramaic Paraphrases of the Hebrew Bible: A Light on the New Testament (p. 223) William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2010

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.

"... This 'second death' is spoken of also in the Apocalypse (2:11; 20:6), but is found nowhere in Jewish literature outside the targums. Furthermore, there are positive indications that in at least one passage where he uses the term (20:14), John has passed from the biblical text to the targumic rendering of Isaiah 65:15,17-19.

This phrase 'second death' (deuteros thanatos) is used four times in the Apocalypse, but is found nowhere in Jewish literature outside the targums. An expression used four times (Apocalypse 2:11; 20:6, 14; 21:8) must have been current coinage when the Apocalypse was being com­posed, in certain circles at least. Since we find the designation used in contexts speaking of such Jewish and Christian themes as the resurrection, general judgment and eternal punishment, it is evident that its origins are not to be sought in Hellenistic religion. The expression must have come from Judaism, unless it was coined by Christianity."

McNamara, Martin Targum and Testament Revisited Aramaic Paraphrases of the Hebrew Bible: A Light on the New Testament (p. 223) William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2010

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.