Jonathan Isaiah 22:14


12 And the prophet of the Lord, the God, the God of hosts, called in that day to weeping, and to mourning, and to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth: 13 But, behold, joy and gladness; they say, Let us slay oxen, and kill sheep, we will eat flesh, ve will drink wine; let us eat, and drink, since we shall die, and not live. 14 The prophet said, with mine ears I was hearing when this was decreed from before the Lord of hosts, namely, that this your iniquity shall not be forgiven you till you die the second death, said the Lord, the God, the God of hosts. 15 Thus said the Lord, the God, the God of hosts. Come, go to this ruler, even to Shebna, who is appointed over the house. 16 And thou shalt say to him. What hast thou here? and what hast thou here, that thou hast prepared for thyself here a place? He hath prepared on high his place! he hath put in the rock the place of his habitation!

Revelation 2:11

New Testament

9 ‘I know the distress you are suffering and your poverty (but you are rich). I also know the slander against you by those who call themselves Jews and really are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. 10 Do not be afraid of the things you are about to suffer. The devil is about to have some of you thrown into prison so you may be tested, and you will experience suffering for ten days. Remain faithful even to the point of death, and I will give you the crown that is life itself. 11 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. The one who conquers will in no way be harmed by the second death.’

 Notes and References

"... The Targumim participate in a cosmology that reflects convictions of how eschatological reward and punishment are to be worked out. It is unlikely that the targumic scheme is original; more probably, it reflects widespread expectations. But sometimes the Targumim illuminate otherwise esoteric statements within the New Testament. Isaiah Targum 63:6 specifies the “lower earth” as the place to which God will cast the “mighty men” of his enemies. A similar phrase is used in Ephesians 4:9 in order to refer to Christ’s descent to the dead. Divine anger is invoked in the Isaiah Targum 3:16-24 against women who adorn themselves—especially their hair—in an exaggerated fashion, and that invites comparison with 1 Timothy 2:9 and 1 Peter 3:3. God’s anger is understood to “whiten” (Targum Malachi 3:2) in a way that may illuminate passages such as Mark 9:3 and Revelation 7:14. The definitive punishment of the wicked is that they are to suffer the “second death.” That is the threat of both Targum Jonathan (Isaiah 22:14; 65:6, 15; Jeremiah 51:39, 57) and the Revelation of John (2:11; 20:6, 14; 21:8). Any extension of time serves to allow for the possibility of repentance (see Targum Isaiah 26:10; 42:14; Targum Habakkuk 1:13; 3:1-2; 2 Peter 3:9; Revelation 2:21). When the God who judges in this fashion takes notice of people, a “memorial” or “remembrance” may be said to come before him. This is a generally targumic expression—amply attested in Targum Jonathan—which also appears in the New Testament ..."

Flesher, Paul V. M. & Chilton, Bruce The Targums: A Critical Introduction (p. 401) Brill, 2011

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