Pseudo Jonathan Exodus 3:14


And Mosheh said before the Lord, Behold, I will go to the sons of Israel, and say to them, The Lord God of your fathers hath sent me to you: and they will say to me, What is His Name ? What shall I say to them ? And the Lord said unto Mosheh, He who spake, and the world was; who spake, and all things were. And He said, This thou shalt say to the sons of Israel, I AM HE WHO IS, AND WHO WILL BE, hath sent me unto you. And the Lord said again unto Mosheh, Thus shalt thou speak to the sons of Israel, The God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Izhak, and the God of Jakob, hath sent me unto you.

Revelation 1:4

New Testament

1 The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants what must happen very soon. He made it clear by sending his angel to his servant John, 2 who then testified to everything that he saw concerning the word of God and the testimony about Jesus Christ. 3 Blessed is the one who reads the words of this prophecy aloud, and blessed are those who hear and obey the things written in it, because the time is near! 4 From John, to the seven churches that are in the province of Asia: Grace and peace to you from “he who is,” and who was, and who is still to come, and from the seven spirits who are before his throne, 5 and from Jesus Christ—the faithful witness, the firstborn from among the dead, the ruler over the kings of the earth. To the one who loves us and has set us free from our sins at the cost of his own blood 6 and has appointed us as a kingdom, as priests serving his God and Father—to him be the glory and the power for ever and ever! Amen. 7 (Look! He is returning with the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who pierced him, and all the tribes on the earth will mourn because of him. This will certainly come to pass! Amen.) 8 “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God—the one who is, and who was, and who is still to come—the All-Powerful!

 Notes and References

"... This designation is an interpretation of the divine name YHWH. In the Old Testament itself, the only interpretation of the name is found in Exodus 3:14, which associates it with the verb 'to be', and interprets it first by the enigmatic phrase 'I am who I am' (or: 'I will be who I will be'), and then simply as 'I am'. Later Jewish interpretation understood these interpretations as statements of the divine eternity. Thus it understands the divine name to be 'the one who is', which expresses the divine eternity in Hellenistic philosophical fashion as timeless being. Alternatively, the meaning could be unpacked in terms of past, present and future existence. This is how the Palestinian Targum (Pseudo-Jonathan) paraphrased the divine name: 'I am who I was and will be' (Exodus 3:14) or 'I am who is and who was, and I am who I will be' (Deuteronomy 32:29; compare also Sibylline Oracle 3:16). Formulae asserting existence in three tenses were also used of Greek gods or the supreme God of philosophy, and this usage may well have influenced the Jewish interpretation of the divine name. But it must be on the latter that Revelation is directly dependent ..."

Bauckham, Richard The Theology of the Book of Revelation (pp. 28-29) Cambridge University Press, 1993

 User Comments

Do you have questions or comments about these texts? Please submit them here.