Pseudo Jonathan Deuteronomy 33:6

Targum

The sons of Israel said, Mosheh commanded us the law, and gave it for an heritage to the tribes of Jakob. And he was king in Israel: when the chiefs of the people were gathered together, the tribes of Israel were obedient to him. Let Reuben live in this world, nor die the second death which the wicked die in the world to come; and let his youths be numbered with the young men of his brethren of Beth Israel. And this is the benediction of the tribe of Jehudah, conjoined with the portion and benediction of his brother Shemeon; and thus he spake: Receive, O Lord, the prayer of Jehudah when he goeth forth unto war, and bring Thou him back from war unto his people in peace. Let his hand take vengeance on his enemies, and be Thou his help and support against his foes. Source

Date: 300-1200 C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

Revelation 2:11

New Testament

10 Do not be afraid of the things you are about to suffer. The devil is about to have some of you thrown into prison so you may be tested, and you will experience suffering for ten days. Remain faithful even to the point of death, and I will give you the crown that is life itself. 11 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. The one who conquers will in no way be harmed by the second death.’ 12 “To the angel of the church in Pergamum write the following: “This is the solemn pronouncement of the one who has the sharp double-edged sword: Source

Date: 92-96 C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

"... There are six occurrences of the expression Second Death within the official Targums Onqelos and Jonathan, namely Deut 33:6, Isa 22:14, 65:6.15, and Jer 51:39.57. Moreover, it occurs in some of the Palestinian Targums to Deut 33:6, and in a variant reading to Targum Psalms 49:11 ... In the development of the concept of resurrection in Judaism, at first only some special individuals were granted new life after death, such as the Patriarchs, Moses, and Elijah. The next stage also included the martyrs, and still later all the righteous. The ultimate stage was the resurrection of all the dead, righteous and wicked alike.28 Apparently, the school responsible for the mentioned interpretation of Deut 33:6 assumed a resurrection of the righteous. It seems therefore that the concept Second Death in Targum Onqelos does not refer to a state of torture but rather to a refusal of resurrection, which means annihilation..."

Houtman, Alberdina and Magda Misset-van de Weg "The Fate of the Wicked: Second Death in Early Jewish and Christian Texts" in Horst, Pieter Willem van der, et al., editors. Empsychoi Logoi--Religious Innovations in Antiquity: Studies in Honour of P (pp. 413-414) Brill, 2008

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.

"... There are six occurrences of the expression Second Death within the official Targums Onqelos and Jonathan, namely Deut 33:6, Isa 22:14, 65:6.15, and Jer 51:39.57. Moreover, it occurs in some of the Palestinian Targums to Deut 33:6, and in a variant reading to Targum Psalms 49:11 ... In the development of the concept of resurrection in Judaism, at first only some special individuals were granted new life after death, such as the Patriarchs, Moses, and Elijah. The next stage also included the martyrs, and still later all the righteous. The ultimate stage was the resurrection of all the dead, righteous and wicked alike.28 Apparently, the school responsible for the mentioned interpretation of Deut 33:6 assumed a resurrection of the righteous. It seems therefore that the concept Second Death in Targum Onqelos does not refer to a state of torture but rather to a refusal of resurrection, which means annihilation..."

Houtman, Alberdina and Magda Misset-van de Weg "The Fate of the Wicked: Second Death in Early Jewish and Christian Texts" in Horst, Pieter Willem van der, et al., editors. Empsychoi Logoi--Religious Innovations in Antiquity: Studies in Honour of P (pp. 413-414) Brill, 2008

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.