Matthew 16:19

New Testament

13 When Jesus came to the area of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, “Who do people say that the Son of Man is?” 14 They answered, “Some say John the Baptist, others Elijah, and others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.” 15 He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” 16 Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” 17 And Jesus answered him, “You are blessed, Simon son of Jonah, because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but my Father in heaven! 18 And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. 19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth will have been bound in heaven, and whatever you release on earth will have been released in heaven.” 20 Then he instructed his disciples not to tell anyone that he was the Christ.

Mishnah Demai 6:11


One who sells produce in Syria and declared “It was grown in the land of Israel,” the purchaser must tithe it. [But if he also said], “It has been tithed,” he may be trusted, because the mouth that forbade is the same mouth that permitted. [If he said: The produce is] from my own field,” the purchaser must tithe it. [But if he added:] “It has already been tithed,” he may be trusted, because the mouth that forbade is the same mouth that permitted. If it was known that he had a field in Syria, the purchaser must tithe it.

 Notes and References

"... The Hebrew words for "bind' (asar) and 'loose' (hitir) each appear with more than one meaning in the Hebrew Bible. 'Bind' can mean 'tie' as in Judges 15:12, 16:11, 'imprison' as in 2 Kings 17:4, 'hitch' (a cart, wagon, or chariot) as in Genesis 46:29, or 'tether' as in Genesis 49:11; while 'hitir' can be the exact opposite of 'asar' in each of these senses. By the time of Jesus, 'asar' had acquired the additional meaning 'forbid,' and its antonym 'hitir' had acquired the meaning 'permit.' These are the meanings most often found in rabbinic literature. The rabbis were called upon constantly by their community to interpret scriptural commands. The Bible forbids working on the Sabbath, for instance, but it does not define what constitutes work. As a result, the rabbis were required to rule on which activities were permitted on the Sabbath. They 'bound' or prohibited certain activities, and 'loosed' or allowed others. The Mishnah contains many rabbinic rulings on what is 'loosed' and what is 'bound' ... The words in the Greek text of Matthew 16:19 which are translated 'bind' and 'loose' are forms of the verbs found in the Septuagint, the usual Greek translation of 'asar' and 'hitir' ..."

Biven, David Binding and Loosing (pp. 12-13) Jerusalem Perspective Vol. 2, No. 11, 1989

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