Matthew 16:19

New Testament

18 And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. 19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth will have been bound in heaven, and whatever you release on earth will have been released in heaven.” 20 Then he instructed his disciples not to tell anyone that he was the Christ.

2 Baruch 10:18

Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch

16 From this time forward speak not of beauty, And discourse not of gracefulness. 17 Moreover, ye priests, take ye the keys of the sanctuary And cast them into the height of heaven, And give them to the Lord and say: "Guard Thy house Thyself. For lo! we are found false stewards." 18 And you, ye virgins; who weave fine linen And silk with gold of Ophir, Take with haste all (these) things And cast (them) into the fire, That it may bear them to Him who made them, And the flame send them to Him who created them, Lest the enemy get possession of them.'

 Notes and References

"... The keys of the temple became a symbol to indicate whether leaders were trustworthy for religious duties (Viljoen 2009:658). 4 Baruch 4:4 articulates this sentiment: ‘Take the keys of the temple … because we were not worthy of keeping them, for we were false stewards’ (compare also 2 Baruch 10:18 and ‘Avot de Rabbi Nathan’). Other persons, who are reliable to perform those duties, would arise to handle these keys. The Testament of Levi reached its final form in the 2nd century CE (Vriezen & Van der Woude 2005:652), and according to the Testament of Levi 10:3 the shameful behaviour of the priests would be exposed with the tearing of the temple veil. The priests abrogated the Law and disregarded the words of the Prophets (Testament Levi 14:4–6). The Testament of Levi furthermore describes the wickedness of the priests as they defiled the altars, mistreated righteous people and took innocent blood on their heads (Testament of Levi 16:2–4). Matthew describes how the priests and the elders persuaded the crowd to take responsibility for the innocent blood of Jesus (Matthew 27:25) and that the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven (Matthew 16:19) will be handed over to the church. This implies that authority is taken away from the Jewish religious leaders and that a great degree of authority is assigned to Peter and the church instead ..."

Viljoen, Francois The Matthean Community Within a Jewish Religious Society (pp. 1-8) HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 72(4), 2016

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