New Testament

Mark 14:36

32 Then they went to a place called Gethsemane, and Jesus said to his disciples, “Sit here while I pray.” 33 He took Peter, James, and John with him, and became very troubled and distressed. 34 He said to them, “My soul is deeply grieved, even to the point of death. Remain here and stay alert.” 35 Going a little farther, he threw himself to the ground and prayed that if it were possible the hour would pass from him. 36 He said, “Abba, Father, all things are possible for you. Take this cup away from me. Yet not what I will, but what you will.” 37 Then he came and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, “Simon, are you sleeping? Couldn’t you stay awake for one hour? 38 Stay awake and pray that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.” 39 He went away again and prayed the same thing. 40 When he came again he found them sleeping; they could not keep their eyes open. And they did not know what to tell him. 41 He came a third time and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and resting? Enough of that! The hour has come. Look, the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 42 Get up, let us go. Look! My betrayer is approaching!”

Date: 60-75 C.E.
* Dates are based on scholarly estimates

Leviticus Rabbah 32:1


AND THE SON OF AN ISRAELITISH WOMAN... WENT OUT. R. Judah and R. Nehemiah offer different interpretations. R. Judah says it bears on the text, Round about the wicked they walk, which means: Round about the wicked the righteous walk. How is this to be understood? When the righteous come forth from the Garden of Eden and see the wicked being judged in Gehenna, their soul within them is glad. Hence it is written, And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have rebelled against Me. At that moment they utter praise and thanksgiving to the Holy One, blessed be He, for the sufferings He had brought upon them in this world.1 Thus it is written, And in that day thou shalt say: I will give thanks unto Thee, O Lord ; for though Thou wast angry with me* Thine anger is turned against the nations of the world,? And Thou comfortest me through them. At what time? When the reviled* is exalted— kerum; that is to say, when the Holy One, blessed be He, will exalt the vineyard that is despised in His world. The vineyard of the Holy One, blessed be He, is none other than Israel, as is proved by the text, For the vineyard of the Lord of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of fudah the plant of His delight. R. Nehemiah said to him: How long will you continue to twist the Scriptures for us? The meaning is rather that ‘round the righteous the wicked walk’; for it is written, ‘Round about the wicked walk.’ How is this to be understood? When the wicked ascend from Gehenna and see the righteous sitting peacefully in the Garden of Eden their soul shrinks® within them. Hence it is written, The wicked shall see and be vexed. At what time? ‘When the reviled is exalted,’ that is to say, when the Holy One, blessed be He, will exalt in the world the despised commandments. What is the reason that you go forth to be stoned?! Because I circumcised my son. What is the reason that you go forth to be burned? Because I have kept the Sabbath. What is the reason that you go forth to be killed? Because I have eaten unleavened bread. What is the reason that you are beaten with a scourge? Because I have made a sukkah, because I took a lulab, because I put on tefillin, because I inserted the blue thread,? because I did the will of the Father who is in heaven.’ Hence it is written, And one shall say unto him: What are these wounds between thy hands? Then he shall answer: Those with which I was wounded in the house of those that caused me to be loved; that is to say, these ‘wounds’ have endeared me to my Father who is in heaven. Another exposition: When [will be fulfilled the text], ‘When the vile are exposed’?* When the Holy One, blessed be He, shall expose the ‘vineyard’ of the bastards. He has, in fact, already exposed them through Moses; for it says) BRING FORTH HIM THAT HATH CURSED.

Date: 500 C.E.
* Dates are based on scholarly estimates