LXX Deuteronomy 18:4

Septuagint

2 And they shall have no inheritance among their brethren; the Lord himself is his portion, as he said to him. 3 And this is the due of the priests in the things coming from the people from those who offer sacrifices, whether it be a calf or a sheep; and thou shalt give the shoulder to the priest, and the cheeks, and the great intestine: 4 and the first-fruits of thy corn, and of thy wine, and of thine oil; and thou shalt give to him the first-fruits of the fleeces of thy sheep: 5 because the Lord has chosen him out of all thy tribes, to stand before the Lord thy God, to minister and bless in his name, himself and his sons among the children of Israel. 6 And if a Levite come from one of the cities of all the children of Israel, where he himself dwells, accordingly as his mind desires, to the place which he shall have chosen, Source

Date: 3rd Century B.C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

Didache 13:3

Patristic

2 Likewise a true teacher is himself worthy, like the workman, of his food. 3 Therefore thou shalt take the firstfruit of the produce of the winepress and of the threshingfloor and of oxen and sheep, and shalt give them as the firstfruits to the prophets, for they are your high priests. 4 But if you have not a prophet, give to the poor. 5 If thou makest bread, take the firstfruits, and give it according to the commandment. 6 Likewise when thou openest a jar of wine or oil, give the firstfruits to the prophets. 7 Of money also and clothes, and of all your possessions, take the firstfruits, as it seem best to you, and give according to the commandment. Source

Date: 50-70 C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

"... In the light of these various senses of ajparchv in the Bible and in Hellenistic Jewish texts, and given the fact that the Jewish offerings to the priests and the poor (eg the תוםורת, the הלח and tithes) were still being made after 70, the complexities of the Jewish Christian ajparchv of Didache 13:3-7 become easier to understand. Besides the prescriptions, which are analogous to or in imitation of the Jewish regulations, Didache 13:3-7 mentions not only the traditional agricultural products (corn, wine and oil) and animals (sheep and cattle), but also money, clothing and possessions of every kind (v 7). The Didache speaks of all these as being kataV thVn ejntolhvn, although the latter categories are not mentioned in the Torah. It appears, however, that the custom of paying the priestly offering (תישאר and תוםורת) and tithes (תורשעם) on all possessions - although never really widespread and common in the first cent. CE (and even later) - was confined to those who were particularly strict and pious Jews and belonged to religious associations.16 These associations drew their members (that is the םירבח) above all from among the Pharisees, such as the Pharisee of the parable (Luke 18:9-14a) who boasts: “I give a tenth of what I purchase” (v 12b). It is probably they who originated the post-Torah expansions and elaborations of tithing and of other offerings.18 The Jewish Christian ajparchv of Did. 13:7, destined for the prophets or (in their absence) the poor, seems to reflect these Jewish practices."

Del Verme, Marcello Didache and Judaism Jewish Roots of an Ancient Christian-Jewish Work (p. 169-170) T&T Clark International, 2004

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.

"... In the light of these various senses of ajparchv in the Bible and in Hellenistic Jewish texts, and given the fact that the Jewish offerings to the priests and the poor (eg the תוםורת, the הלח and tithes) were still being made after 70, the complexities of the Jewish Christian ajparchv of Didache 13:3-7 become easier to understand. Besides the prescriptions, which are analogous to or in imitation of the Jewish regulations, Didache 13:3-7 mentions not only the traditional agricultural products (corn, wine and oil) and animals (sheep and cattle), but also money, clothing and possessions of every kind (v 7). The Didache speaks of all these as being kataV thVn ejntolhvn, although the latter categories are not mentioned in the Torah. It appears, however, that the custom of paying the priestly offering (תישאר and תוםורת) and tithes (תורשעם) on all possessions - although never really widespread and common in the first cent. CE (and even later) - was confined to those who were particularly strict and pious Jews and belonged to religious associations.16 These associations drew their members (that is the םירבח) above all from among the Pharisees, such as the Pharisee of the parable (Luke 18:9-14a) who boasts: “I give a tenth of what I purchase” (v 12b). It is probably they who originated the post-Torah expansions and elaborations of tithing and of other offerings.18 The Jewish Christian ajparchv of Did. 13:7, destined for the prophets or (in their absence) the poor, seems to reflect these Jewish practices."

Del Verme, Marcello Didache and Judaism Jewish Roots of an Ancient Christian-Jewish Work (p. 169-170) T&T Clark International, 2004

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.