Leviticus 16:10

Hebrew Bible

8 and Aaron is to cast lots over the two goats, one lot for the Lord and one lot for Azazel. 9 Aaron must then present the goat which has been designated by lot for the Lord, and he is to make it a sin offering, 10 but the goat which has been designated by lot for Azazel is to be stood alive before the Lord to make atonement on it by sending it away into the desert to Azazel. 11 “Aaron is to present the sin-offering bull which is for himself, and he is to make atonement on behalf of himself and his household. He is to slaughter the sin-offering bull which is for himself, 12 and take a censer full of coals of fire from the altar before the Lord and a full double handful of finely ground fragrant incense, and bring them inside the curtain.

1 Enoch 10:4


2 'Go to Noah and tell him in my name to hide himself and reveal to him that the end is near: the entire earth will be destroyed, a deluge is about to cover the whole earth and will wipe out everything on it. 3 And now instruct him so that he may escape and his descendants may be preserved for all future generations.' 4 And the Lord also said to Raphael: 'Bind Azâzal hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: make a hole in the desert in Dûdâel, and throw him in. 5 Place upon him rough and jagged rocks, cover him with darkness, and let him remain there forever, and cover his face so he may not see light.

 Notes and References

"... Apart from Aramaic fragments and an incomplete Greek manuscript found at Qumran, 1 Enoch survives only in Ethiopic translation. Nickelsburg and Vanderkam’s opinion is that the original was probably written in Aramaic rather than Hebrew. However, caution may be required in drawing conclusions from the Ethiopic version of 1 Enoch as to the development of the Aramaic original, as the Ethiopic text may represent a considerable recasting of the Aramaic. It is a composite work, and the likely dates of composition of its parts vary widely. Overall, its sections demonstrate developing stages in the Enochic tradition, expressing a common world view that the present age is evil and unjust and in need of divine judgment and renewal. The authority of these sections rests on the claim that they transmit divine revelation given to the very early patriarch Enoch (Genesis 5:21-24). As noted above, the idea of a goat of departure in Leviticus 16:10 is taken up in 1 Enoch where the notion is extended to refer to a demon ... Why does Azazel deserve this fate? Azazel is identified in 1 Enoch 8:1 as the one who “taught men to make swords of iron and weapons and shields and breastplates and every instrument of war”. In 1 Enoch 9:6 Azazel is the one who “taught all iniquity upon the earth, and has revealed the eternal mysteries which are in heaven, which the sons of men were striving to learn” ..."

Armitage, Chris Atonement and Ethics in 1 John: A Peacemaking Hermeneutic (pp. 117-118) St Mark's National Theological Centre, 2014

 User Comments

Do you have questions or comments about these texts? Please submit them here.