Cuneiform Texts from Ugarit
Ancient Near East

She spoke up and cried out, “Why have Gupan and Ugar come here? What enemy rises up against Baal? What rival faces the Cloud-Rider? Didn’t I crush El’s beloved, Yam (Ocean)? Didn’t I annihilate Nahar (River), the great god? Didn’t I leash Dragon and bind him in a saddle? I crushed the Sinuous Serpent, Encircler, the seven-headed monster. I crushed the gods’ beloved, Arsha.

Isaiah 19:1

Hebrew Bible

1 This is an oracle about Egypt: Look, the Lord rides on a swift-moving cloud and approaches Egypt. The idols of Egypt tremble before him; the Egyptians lose their courage. 2 “I will provoke civil strife in Egypt: brothers will fight with one another, as will neighbors, cities, and kingdoms. 3 The Egyptians will panic, and I will confuse their strategy. They will seek guidance from the idols and from the spirits of the dead, from the pits used to conjure up underworld spirits, and from the magicians.

 Notes and References

"... Several explicit parallels between the Baal Cycle's account of Baal's struggle against Yamm and Daniel 7:9-14 have led to the widespread endorsement of an Ugaritic provenance (KTU 1.2.IV:7-9) ... Baal’s stock epithet, 'Rider of the Clouds,' occurs in this passage and is considered to be the inspiration for the Hebrew phrasings in Daniel 7:13. This specific title is transparently used in the Hebrew Bible for Yahweh himself, as scholars have recognized for many years. Psalm 68 (Hebrew) exhorts the reader to 'Extol the Rider upon the clouds by his name, Yah' and to '(Sing praises) To Him who rides on the ancient high heavens'. Isaiah 19:1 reads: 'The oracle against Egypt: Behold, the LORD (YHWH) rides upon a swift cloud.' Yahweh 'makes the clouds his chariot' and 'walks on the wings of the wind' in Psalm 104:1-3. Finally, in Deuteronomy 33:26, we read, 'O Jeshurun, there is none like God, who rides the heavens to help you; (who rides) the clouds in His majesty.' ..."

Heiser, Michael S. The Baal Cycle as Backdrop to Daniel 7: A Paradigm for Jewish Binitarianism and the New Testament’s High Christology (pp. 1-16) Evangelical Theological Society, 2003

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