Job 28:22

Hebrew Bible

20 “But wisdom—where does it come from? Where is the place of understanding? 21 For it has been hidden from the eyes of every living creature, and from the birds of the sky it has been concealed. 22 Abaddon and Death say, ‘With our ears we have heard a rumor about where it can be found.’ 23 God understands the way to it, and he alone knows its place. 24 For he looks to the ends of the earth and observes everything under the heavens.

Revelation 9:11

New Testament

9 They had breastplates like iron breastplates, and the sound of their wings was like the noise of many horse-drawn chariots charging into battle. 10 They have tails and stingers like scorpions, and their ability to injure people for five months is in their tails. 11 They have as king over them the angel of the abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon. 12 The first woe has passed, but two woes are still coming after these things!

 Notes and References

"... Of the remaining terms, 'the dust' is used as in Isaiah 26:19 and Daniel 12:2, two key passages for the Jewish concept of resurrection, as well as in other Old Testament passages (e.g. Job 17:16; 20:11; Psalm 22:29; 30:10), for the place of the dead. 'The angel of death' in text E (2 Baruch 21:23) may be Abaddon, who is 'the angel of the abyss' in Revelation 9:11. The personification of Abaddon in Job 28:22 could have led to the idea that he is the angel in charge of the underworld and therefore the angelic power to whom God entrusts the dead. In Revelation 20:13 the three places of the dead are the sea, Death and Hades. The personified Death may be this author's substitute for Abaddon, since he has used the latter name for the king of the demons (rather than the ruler of the dead) in 9:11. Death and Hades are a standard pair in Revelation (1:18; 6:8; 20:13-14) and may represent the Old Testament pair Sheol and Abaddon, though there is also Old Testament precedent for the pair Death and Sheol (Hosea 13:14). More problematic is the sea. it is not plausible to introduce a distinction between body and soul into this verse, so that sea is the place from which the bodies of those who have died at sea are recovered, while Death and Hades surrender their souls. In this case, the earth as the place where the bodies of other people are to be found would surely have to be mentioned too. But in any case, the object of both clauses is 'the dead'. The language is clearly not intended to distinguish soul and body, but simply to speak of the return of the dead ..."

Bauckham, Richard The Fate of the Dead: Studies on the Jewish and Christian Apocalypses (pp. 279-280) Brill, 1998

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