Isaiah 63:14

Hebrew Bible

12 the one who made his majestic power available to Moses, who divided the water before them, gaining for himself a lasting reputation, 13 who led them through the deep water? Like a horse running through the wilderness they did not stumble. 14 As an animal that goes down into a valley to graze, so the Spirit of the Lord granted them rest. In this way you guided your people, gaining for yourself an honored reputation. 15 Look down from heaven and take notice, from your holy, majestic palace! Where are your zeal and power? Do not hold back your tender compassion! 16 For you are our father, though Abraham does not know us and Israel does not recognize us. You, Lord, are our father; you have been called our Protector from ancient times.

LXX Isaiah 63:14


12 who led Moyses with his right hand? Where is his glorious arm? He overcame the water from before him, to make for himself an everlasting name. 13 He led them through the deep like a horse through a wilderness, and they did not become weary, 14 and like cattle through a plain. A spirit came down from the Lord and guided them. Thus you led your people, to make for yourself a glorious name. 15 Turn from heaven, and see from your holy house and glory. Where are your zeal and your strength? Where is the abundance of your mercy and of your compassions, that you have held back from us? 16 For you are our father, because Abraam did not know us and Israel did not recognize us, but you, O Lord, are our father; deliver us; from the beginning your name is upon us.

 Notes and References

"... Given then the rare but here explicit linguistic connection (to be led by the Spirit, together with walking), and the ethical/moral context of living/behaving rightly and doing God’s will, and that this is in the larger context of a psalm that we know was important for Paul (also in nearby soteriological contexts), it is likely that Paul was deliberately alluding to it also for “walk by/ led by the Spirit.” Even if it is only a partial background that Paul is echoing, the context of the psalm could be expected to shed light on Paul’s meaning in his usage that has been influenced by it ... Beale acknowledges that Psalm 143 is part of the “important background for Galatians 5:18.” However, he argues that it is not the primary background for two reasons: 1) the psalm uses ὁδηγέω instead of ἄγω (in Paul). But LXX Isaiah 63:14 also uses the same verb in the only place it directly describes the Spirit leading; and anyway, the two verbs are close synonyms; 2) Isaiah 63 is part of an eschatological exodus-new exodus context, while the psalm is applying the concept to David’s life. But that is surely not a limitation for Paul, for whom the Psalms indeed function eschatologically ..."

Swanson, Scott A. The Instruction of the Spirit: The Wisdom Framework for Pauline Spirit Dependence (pp. 81-128) Mid-America Journal of Theology, No. 29, 2018

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