20 “‘At that time I will summon my servant Eliakim, son of Hilkiah. 21 I will put your robe on him, tie your belt around him, and transfer your authority to him. He will become a protector of the residents of Jerusalem and of the people of Judah. 22 I will place the key to the house of David on his shoulder. When he opens the door, no one can close it; when he closes the door, no one can open it. 23 I will fasten him like a peg into a solid place; he will bring honor and respect to his father’s family. 24 His father’s family will gain increasing prominence because of him, including the offspring and the offshoots. All the small containers, including the bowls and all the jars, will hang from this peg.’
17 And Jesus answered him, “You are blessed, Simon son of Jonah, because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but my Father in heaven! 18 And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. 19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth will have been bound in heaven, and whatever you release on earth will have been released in heaven.” 20 Then he instructed his disciples not to tell anyone that he was the Christ. 21 From that time on Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things at the hands of the elders, chief priests, and experts in the law, and be killed and on the third day be raised.
Notes and References
"... In verse 19, Jesus introduces the means of forgiveness in the new age by saying, ‘I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven,’ showing that the authoritative basis for dealing with sins has passed from the old temple to the new ecclesiological community, which may here be conceived to be a new temple. If Matthew 16:19 is an allusion to Isaiah 22, it might enhance the possibility that Jesus is speaking about the temple. Isaiah 22:22 portrays Eliakim, prime minister to king Hezekiah, as having ‘the key of the house of David on his shoulder’ because he controlled who could enter into the king’s presence and service. There were priestly connotations associated with Eliakim’s kingly administration, since Isaiah 22:21 portrays him clothed with a ‘tunic’ and a ‘sash securely about him’. The Aramaic translation of Isaiah 22:22 says that God ‘will place the key of the sanctuary and the authority of the house of David in his hand’. And then Isaiah 22:24 (of the Aramaic version) says that even Eliakim’s relatives will be ‘priests wearing the ephod’. Like Eliakim, Christ establishes himself as having an authoritative position in the new temple in Matthew 16:18, and then extends his priestly authority to his disciples, who also have priestly authority ..."
Beale, G. K. The Temple and the Church’s Mission: A Biblical Theology of the Dwelling Place of God (pp. 225-226) InterVarsity Press, 2004
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