Isaiah 19:18

Hebrew Bible

18 At that time five cities in the land of Egypt will speak the language of Canaan and swear allegiance to the Lord of Heaven’s Armies. One will be called the City of the Sun. 19 At that time there will be an altar for the Lord in the middle of the land of Egypt, as well as a sacred pillar dedicated to the Lord at its border. 20 It will become a visual reminder in the land of Egypt of the Lord of Heaven’s Armies. When they cry out to the Lord because of oppressors, he will send them a deliverer and defender who will rescue them.

LXX Isaiah 19:18


18 On that day there will be five cities in Egypt speaking the Chananite language and swearing in the name of the Lord. The one city will be called Asedek City. 19 On that day there will be an altar to the Lord in the land of the Egyptians and a stele to the Lord at its border. 20 And it will be a sign forever to the Lord in the country of Egypt, because they will cry to the Lord on account of those who oppress them, and the Lord will send them a man who will save them—judging he will save them.

 Notes and References

"... The Masoretic text is importantly different from the reading of this verse found in the manuscripts of Isaiah among the Dead Sea Scrolls. In 1QIsaa and 4QIsab, the only two Isaiah manuscripts containing this verse, the relevant phrase is is usually understood as “City of the Sun.” Indeed, as a noun is quite rare, but the other uses in Job 9:7 and Judges 14:18 suggest “sun” as the correct meaning. This reading suggests identifying the city with Heliopolis, since it too means “City of the Sun.” Additionally, although the exact language is different, the city described in Isaiah 19:18 recalls the city in Jeremiah 43:13, called “house of the sun,” also acknowledged as Heliopolis ... what is not clear, at least on a simple examination of the textual differences, is whether the difference is intentional and which should be regarded as the earlier or more original of the two. When we turn to the Old Greek traditions we encounter different readings altogether. The LXX has [a] puzzling phrase ... This reading generates at least two important questions: (1) What is the origin of this reading? (2) Why is 'asedek' transliterated rather than translated? The origin of this reading is a matter of debate on textual, linguistic, and historical grounds. No Hebrew text that could potentially be the Vorlage of this reading is extant, a fact that complicates any attempt to determine the reading’s origin ..."

Hibbard, J. Todd "Isaiah 19:18: A Textual Variant in Light of the Temple of Onias in Egypt" in Holt, Else Kragelund, et al. (eds.) Concerning the Nations: Essays on the Oracles against the Nations in Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel (pp. 32-52) Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2015

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