Hesiod Theogony 729


[725] would reach Tartarus upon the tenth. Round it runs a fence of bronze, and night spreads in triple line all about it like a neck-circlet, while above grow the roots of the earth and unfruitful sea. There by the counsel of Zeus who drives the clouds the Titan gods [730] are hidden under misty darkness, in a dank place where are the ends of the huge earth. And they may not go out; for Poseidon fixed gates of bronze upon it, and a wall runs all round it on every side. There Gyes and Cottus and great-souled Obriareus

1 Enoch 17:2


1 And they took ⌈and⌉ brought me to a place in which those who were there were like flaming fire, and, when they wished, they appeared as men. 2 And they brought me to the place of darkness, and to a mountain the point of whose summit reached to heaven. 3 And I saw the places of the luminaries ⌈and the treasuries of the stars⌉ and of the thunder ⌈and⌉ in the uttermost depths, where were a fiery bow and arrows and their quiver, and ⌈⌈a fiery sword⌉⌉ and all the lightnings.

 Notes and References

"... ‘Darkness’ is used frequently as an epithet for the netherworld in the Hebrew Bible. It appears, for example, in Psalm 88:12; Proverbs 20:20; Job 10:21–22 and 17:13. Job especially contains quite a few examples in which darkness, a metaphor for death, and light, a metaphor for life, are contrasted. Job 10:21–22, for example, describes the land from which none return as a land of gloom and deep darkness, where light is like darkness. ‘Darkness’ or ‘the place of darkness’ (it appears thus in 1 Enoch 17:2) is also associated with death and the underworld in Greek literature. While it simply means ‘darkness, dusky, gloomy,’ the related term is used as a synonym for the realm of the dead in early Greek literature. It conveys, for example, ‘gloom of the world below,’ and ‘nether darkness’ in Odyssey 11.57, 155; 20.356; Iliad 15.191; 21.56 and in Aeschylus’s Persians 839.37. Zophos, as ‘gloom’ or ‘darkness,’ designates subterranean Tartarus in Hesiod’s Theogony 729. There, under the misty Gloom, the Titans are banished, at the ends of the earth. Zophos was also apparently linked to the west, and renders ‘the Dark Quarter’ or ‘the west’ in Odyssey 3.335; 9.26; 13.241 and Iliad 12.240 ..."

Bautch, Kelley Coblentz A Study of the Geography of 1 Enoch 17-19: “No One Has Seen What I Have Seen.” (pp. 50-51) Brill, 2003

 User Comments

Do you have questions or comments about these texts? Please submit them here.