Galatians 3:1

New Testament

1 You foolish Galatians! Who has cast a spell on you? Before your eyes Jesus Christ was vividly portrayed as crucified! 2 The only thing I want to learn from you is this: Did you receive the Spirit by doing the works of the law or by believing what you heard? 3 Are you so foolish? Although you began with the Spirit, are you now trying to finish by human effort? 4 Have you suffered so many things for nothing?—if indeed it was for nothing. 5 Does God then give you the Spirit and work miracles among you by your doing the works of the law or by your believing what you heard?

Pirkei Avot 2:11


11 Rabbi Joshua said: an evil eye, the evil inclination, and hatred for humankind put a person out of the world. 12 Rabbi Yose said: Let the property of your fellow be as precious unto you as your own; Make yourself fit to study Torah for it will not be yours by inheritance; And let all your actions be for [the sake of] the name of heaven. 13 Rabbi Shimon said: Be careful with the reading of Shema and the prayer, And when you pray, do not make your prayer something automatic, but a plea for compassion before God, for it is said: “for he is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger, abounding in kindness, and renouncing punishment” (Joel 2:13); And be not wicked in your own esteem.

 Notes and References

"... Galatians 3:1 ... In his letter to the Galatians, Paul implies that a competing group of Christians who followed the Jewish law, led by James, would have been jealous of the freedom Paul had given them in not being bound to Torah: 'O uncomprehending Galatians, who has injured you with an evil eye, you before whose very eyes Jesus Christ was proclaimed as crucified?' ... Damage caused by the Evil Eye ... Mishnah Avot 2:11, Proverbs 23:6; 28:22, Sirach 18:18; 31:12-13, Wisdom of Solomon 4:12 ..."

Elliott, John H. "The Evil Eye" in Crook, Zeba A., (ed.) The Ancient Mediterranean Social World: A Sourcebook (pp. 7-11) William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2020

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