3 Maccabees 5:35


33 So Hermon suffered an unexpected and dangerous threat, and his eyes wavered and his face fell. 34 The king's Friends one by one sullenly slipped away and dismissed the assembled people to their own occupations. 35 Then the Jews, on hearing what the king had said, praised the manifest Lord God, King of kings, since this also was his aid that they had received. 36 The king, however, reconvened the party in the same manner and urged the guests to return to their celebrating.

Revelation 17:14

New Testament

12 The ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have not yet received a kingdom, but will receive ruling authority as kings with the beast for one hour. 13 These kings have a single intent, and they will give their power and authority to the beast. 14 They will make war with the Lamb, but the Lamb will conquer them, because he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those accompanying the Lamb are the called, chosen, and faithful.” 15 Then the angel said to me, “The waters you saw (where the prostitute is seated) are peoples, multitudes, nations, and languages. 16 The ten horns that you saw, and the beast—these will hate the prostitute and make her desolate and naked. They will consume her flesh and burn her up with fire.

 Notes and References

"... Daniel 4 is the probable background for the title since allusions to Daniel 4 and 7 occur in the context of Revelation 17:14. Perhaps the argument from word order should also be added, for the phrase 'Lord of lords and King of kings' occurs in that order in LXX Daniel 4:37. Even though Beale is correct that the title in Revelation 17:14 has its closest verbal parallel in LXX Daniel 4:37, his arguments are nevertheless problematic: (1) There is no clear evidence elsewhere in Revelation for allusions to LXX Daniel. (2) The title occurs as an address to God at the beginning of a prayer in 1 Enoch 9:4 and in a context of praise to God in LXX Daniel 4:37, i.e., in very similar contexts. (3) It is not possible to determine whether LXX Daniel 4:37 influenced 1 Enoch 9:4 or whether 1 Enoch 9:4 influenced LXX Daniel 4:37 (the date of both translations is problematic; the existence of a translation of all or part of 1 Enoch in the first century A.D. is rendered probable by the quotation of 1 Enoch 1:9 in Jude 14–15). The title 'King of kings' is also applied to Yahweh in early Jewish literature (2 Maccabees 13:4; 3 Maccabees 5:35; 1 Enoch 9:4; 63:4; 84:2; 1QM 14:16; 4Q491 = 4QMa frags. 8–10, line 13; 4Q381 = 4QNon-Canonical Psalms B frags. 76–77, line 7; Philo Spec. Leg. 1.18; Decal. 41; Testament of Moses 8:1). It is also a title for God found in the Mishnah (m. Sanh. 4:5), as is the even more comprehensive title 'King of kings of kings' (m. Avot 3:1; 4:22; Ma'aseh Merkavah 551, 552, 555, 558) ..."

Aune, David E. Word Biblical Commentary: Revelation 17-22 (pp. 107-108) Word Books, 1998

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