Wisdom of Solomon 16:9


7 For the one who turned toward it was saved, not by the thing that was beheld, but by you, the Savior of all. 8 And by this also you convinced our enemies that it is you who deliver from every evil. 9 For they were killed by the bites of locusts and flies, and no healing was found for them, because they deserved to be punished by such things. 10 But your children were not conquered even by the fangs of venomous serpents, for your mercy came to their help and healed them. 11 To remind them of your oracles they were bitten, and then were quickly delivered, so that they would not fall into deep forgetfulness and become unresponsive to your kindness.

Josephus Antiquities of the Jews Book 2 14:3


3 Accordingly God punished his falseness with another plague, added to the former. For there arose, out of the bodies of the Egyptians, an innumerable quantity of lice; by which, wicked as they were, they miserably perished; as not able to destroy this sort of vermin, either with washes, or with ointments. At which terrible judgment, the King of Egypt was in disorder, upon the fear into which he reasoned himself, lest his people should be destroyed: and that the manner of this death was also reproachful. So that he was forced in part to recover himself from his wicked temper to a sound mind. For he gave leave for the Hebrews themselves to depart. But when the plague thereupon ceased, he thought it proper to require, that they should leave their children and wives behind them, as pledges of their return: whereby he provoked God to be more vehemently angry at him: as if he thought to impose on his providence: and as if it were only Moses, and not God who punished the Egyptians for the sake of the Hebrews. For he filled that countrey full of various sorts of pestilential creatures, with their various properties; such indeed as had never come into the sight of men before. By whose means the men perished themselves, and the land was destitute of husbandmen for its cultivation. But if any thing escaped destruction from them, it was killed by a distemper, which the men underwent also.

 Notes and References

"... in Josephus' account Moses goes to Pharaoh alone after he is assured of the allegiance of the Israelites, of their agreement to follow his orders, and of their love of liberty. Again, it is Moses rather than Aaron (Exodus 7:10) who performs miracles with his rod in the presence of Pharaoh; and Moses' role is all the more impressive because, according to Josephus' addition, the king had ridiculed him. Again, whereas Exodus 7:19 says that it was Aaron who with his staff produced the plague of blood, Josephus, though he generally avoids attributing miracles to God, says that the plague was produced at God's command and does not indicate who actually performed it. Likewise, in Exodus 8:2, 13 it is Aaron who brought on the plagues of frogs and lice, whereas Josephus declares that it was God who produced them ..."

Feldman, Louis H. Josephus' Portrait of Moses (pp. 285-328) The Jewish Quarterly Review, LXXXII, Nos. 3-4, 1992

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