Hebrew Bible

Psalm 49

5 Why should I be afraid in times of trouble, when the sinful deeds of deceptive men threaten to overwhelm me? 6 They trust in their wealth and boast in their great riches. 7 Certainly a man cannot rescue his brother; he cannot pay God an adequate ransom price 8 (the ransom price for a human life is too high,and people go to their final destiny), 9 so that he might continue to live forever and not experience death. 10 Surely one sees that even wise people die; fools and spiritually insensitive people all pass away and leave their wealth to others. 11 Their grave becomes their permanent residence,their eternal dwelling place. They name their lands after themselves, 12 but, despite their wealth, people do not last. They are like animals that perish. 13 This is the destiny of fools, and of those who approve of their philosophy. (Selah) 14 They will travel to Sheol like sheep, with death as their shepherd. The godly will rule over them when the day of vindication dawns. Sheol will consume their bodies, and they will no longer live in impressive houses. 15 But God will rescue my life from the power of Sheol; certainly he will pull me to safety. (Selah) 16 Do not be afraid when a man becomes rich and his wealth multiplies.

Date: 6th-3rd Centuries B.C.E.
* Dates are based on scholarly estimates

Targum Psalm 49

1 For praise; by the sons of Korah; a hymn. 2 Hear this declaration, all peoples; give ear, all dwellers on earth. 3 Even the sons of the first Adam, even the sons of Jacob together, righteous and sinner. 4 My mouth will speak wisdom, and the murmur of my heart is understanding. 5 I will incline my ear to a parable, I will begin to open my riddle with the lyre. 6 Why should I fear on the day of the visitation of evil, except that the guilt of my sin at my end will encompass me? 7 Woe to the sinners, who trust in their possessions, and who boast in the size of their riches. 8 A man will by no means redeem his brother, who was taken captive, by his riches; and he will not give to God his price of redemption. 9 And he gives his glorious redemption, and his evil will cease, and vengeance forever. 10 And he will live again for eternal life; he will not see the judgment of Gehenna. 11 For the wise will see the wicked, in Gehenna they will be judged; together fools and the stupid will perish, and they will leave their money to the righteous. 12 In their tomb they will abide forever, and they will not rise from their tents for all generations, because they have exalted themselves; and they have acquired an evil name upon the earth. 13 And a wicked man will not lodge in glory with the righteous; he is likened to a beast, he is worth nothing. 14 This their way has caused folly for them; and in their end with their mouth they will recount their offenses in the world to come. 15 Like sheep, they have assigned the righteous to death, and killed them; they have destroyed the righteous and those who serve the Torah, and the upright they have punished; because of this, their bodies will decay in Gehenna, because they extended their hand and wrecked the dwelling place of his Presence. 16 David said in the spirit of prophecy, “Truly God will redeem my soul from the judgment of Gehenna, for he will teach me his Torah forever.”

Date: 200-600 C.E.
* Dates are based on scholarly estimates