7 He issued a proclamation and said, “In Nineveh, by the decree of the king and his nobles: No human or animal, cattle or sheep, is to taste anything; they must not eat and they must not drink water. 8 Every person and animal must put on sackcloth and must cry earnestly to God, and everyone must turn from their evil way of living and from the violence that they do. 9 Who knows? Perhaps God might be willing to change his mind and relent and turn from his fierce anger so that we might not die.” 10 When God saw their actions—that they turned from their evil way of living—God relented concerning the judgment he had threatened them with and did not destroy them.
12 “Yet even now,” the Lord says, “return to me with all your heart—with fasting, weeping, and mourning. 13 Tear your hearts, not just your garments.” Return to the Lord your God, for he is merciful and compassionate, slow to anger and boundless in loyal love—often relenting from calamitous punishment. 14 Who knows? Perhaps he will be compassionate and grant a reprieve, and leave blessing in his wake—a meal offering and a drink offering for you to offer to the Lord your God! 15 Blow the trumpet in Zion. Announce a holy fast; proclaim a sacred assembly. 16 Gather the people; sanctify an assembly! Gather the elders; gather the children and the nursing infants. Let the bridegroom come out from his bedroom and the bride from her private quarters.
Notes and References
"... A distinctive characteristic of [Joel], its use of specific phrases from other canonical works, gives Joel the appearance of a learned interpreter. Where earlier prophets claim to have received their words directly from YHWH, Joel frequently "cites" predecessors. In some instances he probably draws on phrases in vogue at the time, but sometimes Joel may actually quote written texts ... (compare Joel 1:15 - Ezekiel 30:2; Joel 2:2 - Zephaniah 1:14-15; Joel 2:6 - Nahum 2:11; Joel 2:14 - Jonah 3:9; Joel 2:17 - Psalm 79:10; Joel 3:5 - Obadiah 17; Joel 4:1 - Jeremiah 33:15; Joel 4:2 - Isaiah 66:18) ... Establishing priority in such cases is notoriously difficult, and determining dates for insertions into older prophetic complexes seldom carries much conviction (e.g., Isaiah 13:6, 16; Amos 9:13). The texts under scrutiny do include some rather late postexilic entries, particularly Obadiah and Malachi ..."
Crenshaw, James L. Joel (pp. 26-27) Doubleday, 1995
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