Isaiah 63:9

Hebrew Bible

7 I will tell of the faithful acts of the Lord, of the Lord’s praiseworthy deeds. I will tell about all the Lord did for us, the many good things he did for the family of Israel, because of his compassion and great faithfulness. 8 He said, “Certainly they will be my people, children who are not disloyal.” He became their deliverer. 9 Through all that they suffered, he suffered too. The messenger sent from his very presence delivered them. In his love and mercy he protected them; he lifted them up and carried them throughout ancient times. 10 But they rebelled and offended his Holy Spirit, so he turned into an enemy and fought against them.

Tobit 12:15


13 And that time when you did not hesitate to get up and leave your dinner to go and bury the dead, 14 I was sent to you to test you. And at the same time God sent me to heal you and Sarah your daughter-in-law. 15 I am Raphael, one of the seven angels who stand ready and enter before the glory of the Lord." 16 The two of them were shaken; they fell face down, for they were afraid. 17 But he said to them, "Do not be afraid; peace be with you. Bless God forevermore.

 Notes and References

"... Another important exalted heavenly figure that clearly influenced the development of the warrior-angel Michael is the 'Commander of the Army of Yahweh' - Joshua 5:13-15 - who converses with Joshua during the conquest of Canaan. Further, Isaiah's 'Angel of Yahweh's Presence', while not distinct from Yahweh, is clearly a major basis for the development of the elite group if distinct angels, including Raphael, who are able to enter the presence of the Lord (Tobit 12:15) and for Jubilees 'Angel of the Presence' who clearly acts in distinction from Yahweh. Lastly, the grouping of four archangels is almost certainly influenced by Ezekiel’s reference to the 'four living creatures' in Ezekiel 1 or 'Cherubim' in Ezekiel 10 who stand under the throne of God ..."

Galbraith, Deane "The Origin of Archangels: Idealogical Mystification of Nobility" in Myles, Robert J. (ed.) Class Struggle in the New Testament (pp. 209-240) Fortress Academic, 2019

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