Isaiah 63:9

Hebrew Bible

7 I will tell of the faithful acts of the Lord, of the Lord’s praiseworthy deeds. I will tell about all the Lord did for us, the many good things he did for the family of Israel, because of his compassion and great faithfulness. 8 He said, “Certainly they will be my people, children who are not disloyal.” He became their deliverer. 9 Through all that they suffered, he suffered too. The messenger sent from his very presence delivered them. In his love and mercy he protected them; he lifted them up and carried them throughout ancient times. 10 But they rebelled and offended his Holy Spirit, so he turned into an enemy and fought against them. 11 His people remembered the ancient times. Where is the one who brought them up out of the sea, along with the shepherd of his flock? Where is the one who placed his Holy Spirit among them,

Jubilees 1:26

Pseudepigrapha

25 And do thou write down for thyself all these words which I declare unto thee on this mountain, the first and the last, which shall come to pass in all the divisions of the days in the law and in the testimony and in the weeks and the jubilees unto eternity, until I descend and dwell with them throughout eternity.' 26 And He said to the angel of the presence: 'Write for Moses from the beginning of creation till My sanctuary has been built among them for all eternity. 27 And the Lord will appear to the eyes of all, and all shall know that I am the God of Israel and the Father of all the children of Jacob, and King on Mount Zion for all eternity. And Zion and Jerusalem shall be holy.'

 Notes and References

"... Another important exalted heavenly figure that clearly influenced the development of the warrior-angel Michael is the 'Commander of the Army of Yahweh' - Josh 5:13-15 - who converses with Joshua during the conquest of Canaan. Further, Isaiah's 'Angel of Yahweh's Presence', while not distinct from Yahweh, is clearly a major basis for the development of the elite group if distinct angels, including Raphael, who are able to enter the presence of the Lord (Tob 12:15) and for Jubilees 'Angel of the Presence' who clearly acts in distinction from Yahweh. Lastly, the grouping of four archangels is almost certainly influenced by Ezekiel’s reference to the 'four living creatures' in Ezek 1 or 'Cherubim' in Exekiel 10 who stand under the throne of God ..."

Galbraith, Deane "The Origin of Archangels: Idealogical Mystification of Nobility" in Myles, Robert J., editor. Class Struggle in the New Testament (p. 212) Fortress Academic, 2019

 User Comments
No comments currently available.

Do you have questions or comments about these texts? Please submit them here.