Isaiah 63:16

Hebrew Bible

14 As an animal that goes down into a valley to graze, so the Spirit of the Lord granted them rest. In this way you guided your people, gaining for yourself an honored reputation. 15 Look down from heaven and take notice, from your holy, majestic palace! Where are your zeal and power? Do not hold back your tender compassion! 16 For you are our father, though Abraham does not know us and Israel does not recognize us. You, Lord, are our father; you have been called our Protector from ancient times. 17 Why, Lord, do you make us stray from your ways and make our minds stubborn so that we do not obey you? Return for the sake of your servants, the tribes of your inheritance! 18 For a short time your special nation possessed a land, but then our adversaries knocked down your holy sanctuary. Source

Date: 7th-5th Centuries B.C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

Jonathan Isaiah 63:16

Targum

14 As a beast is led in a plain, the Word of the Lord led them; so didst Thou lead Thy people to make Thyself a glorious name. 15 Look down from heaven, and reveal Thyself from the habitation of Thy holiness and of Thy glory: where is Thy vengeance, and Thy great might? the multitude of Thy mercies and Thy compassion towards me are restrained. 16 For Thou art He, whose mercies towards us are as many as a father's towards his children: for Abraham hath not brought us up out of Egypt, and Israel hath not wrought for us wonderful works in the wilderness; Thou art the Lord; Thy mercies towards us are many, like a father's towards his children, O, our redeemer; Thy name is from everlasting. 17 Why hast Thou cast us off, Lord, that we should go astray from the paths which are right in Thy sight, as the nations which have no part in the instruction of Thy law? Our heart is not turned away from Thy fear: return Thy Shekinah unto Thy people, for the sake of Thy righteous ser vants, unto whom Thou hast sworn by Thy Word to make the tribes amongst themThine inheritance. Source

Date: 200-300 C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

"... In later Judaism mention is made but rarely of God as Father of Is­rael. There seems to have been a tendency to avoid the designation. This tendency is noticeable in the Targum to the Prophets, where the word "fa­ther" is replaced by some other word, or the text is made to say that God is as a father. Thus "Thou art our Father" of Isa 63:16 becomes in the targum: "Thou art he whose compassions towards us are more than those of a fa­ther towards his children." Likewise in Targum Isaiah 64:8. In Targum Jer­emiah 3:4, 19 it is replaced by "master"; in Tg.Jeremiah 31:9 and Malachi 1:6 it is preceded by "as," "like" (a father)."

McNamara, Martin Targum and Testament Revisited Aramaic Paraphrases of the Hebrew Bible: A Light on the New Testament (p. 179) William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2010

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.

"... In later Judaism mention is made but rarely of God as Father of Is­rael. There seems to have been a tendency to avoid the designation. This tendency is noticeable in the Targum to the Prophets, where the word "fa­ther" is replaced by some other word, or the text is made to say that God is as a father. Thus "Thou art our Father" of Isa 63:16 becomes in the targum: "Thou art he whose compassions towards us are more than those of a fa­ther towards his children." Likewise in Targum Isaiah 64:8. In Targum Jer­emiah 3:4, 19 it is replaced by "master"; in Tg.Jeremiah 31:9 and Malachi 1:6 it is preceded by "as," "like" (a father)."

McNamara, Martin Targum and Testament Revisited Aramaic Paraphrases of the Hebrew Bible: A Light on the New Testament (p. 179) William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2010

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.