Hesiod Theogony 806


[805] Such an oath, then, did the gods appoint the eternal and primeval water of Styx to be: and it spouts through a rugged place. And there, all in their order, are the sources and ends of the dark earth and misty Tartarus and the unfruitful sea and starry heaven, [810] loathsome and dank, which even the gods abhor. And there are shining gates and an immovable threshold of bronze having unending roots, and it is grown of itself.1And beyond, away from all the gods, live the Titans, beyond gloomy Chaos.

1 Enoch 18:11


10 And I saw a deep abyss, with columns ⌈⌈of heavenly fire, and among them I saw columns⌉⌉ of fire fall, which were beyond measure alike towards the height and towards the depth. 11 And beyond that abyss I saw a place which had no firmament of the heaven above, and no firmly founded earth beneath it: there was no water upon it, and no birds, but it was a waste and horrible place. 12 I saw there seven stars like great burning mountains, and to me, when I inquired regarding them,

 Notes and References

"... The place beyond the mountains brings Enoch to the 'end of the great earth' according to the Greek, or 'beyond the great earth' according to the Ethiopic. The site offers a terminus of some sort; it is here apparently where the heavens meet the earth. I translate 1 Enoch 18:10 as follows: 'is a place, the end of the great earth. There the heavens are completed.' Black considers this expression 'great earth' to be highly unusual. He suggests that a misreading of the Aramaic has occurred and offers instead 'beyond the ends of the earth', a phrase familiar from Targum Provers 30:4. While the expression 'great earth' seems rather awkward, Nickelsburg observes a verbal parallel with Hesiod’s Theogony which locates Tartarus, the prison of the titans, at 'the ends of the huge earth. We learn, then, in 1 Enoch 18:10 that at this site the heavens are finished or gathered together. For Charles and Black, this latter expression conveys that the site is where the heavens come to an end or are completed (so 1 Enoch 18:5 and 33:2). Some Ethiopic manuscripts read instead: 'there the waters were gathered together.' Dillmann, Lods, and Uhlig prefer this variant. Dillmann describes the site as the place where waters are collected, the same as the encircling Okeanos of 1 Enoch 17:7–8 ..."

Bautch, Kelley Coblentz A Study of the Geography of 1 Enoch 17-19: “No One Has Seen What I Have Seen.” (pp. 128-129) Brill, 2003

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