Genesis 1:1

Hebrew Bible

1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 Now the earth was without shape and empty, and darkness was over the surface of the watery deep, but the Spirit of God was hovering11 over the surface of the water. 3 God said, “Let there be light.” And there was light! 4 God saw that the light was good, so God separated the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light “day” and the darkness “night.” There was evening, and there was morning, marking the first day. 6 God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters and let it separate water from water.” 7 So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it. It was so. 8 God called the expanse “sky.” There was evening, and there was morning, a second day. Source

Date: 5th Century B.C.E. (Final composition) (based on scholarly estimates)

Neofiti Genesis 1:1

Targum

1 From the beginning with wisdom the Memra of the Lord created and perfected the heavens and the earth. 2 And the earth was waste and unformed, desolate of man and beast, empty of plant cultivation and of trees, and darkness was spread over the face of the abyss; and a spirit of mercy from before the Lord was blowing over the surface of the waters. 3 And the Memra of the Lord said: “Let there be light” and there was light according to the decree of his Memra. 4 And it was manifest before the Lord that the light was good; and the Memra of the Lord separated the light from the darkness. 5 And the Memra of the Lord called the light daytime and the darkness he called night. And there was evening and there was morning: (in) the order of the work of creation, first day. 6 And the Memra of the Lord said: “Let there be the firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the lower waters from the upper waters. And the Lord created the firmament and separated the waters that were under the firmament from the waters that were above the firmament; and it was so according to his Memra. 7 And God created the separation, which separated the water below the line of separation and the water above the line of separation, and it was thus as his word. Source

Date: 300-600 C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

"'From the beginning with wisdom': double translation of HT br’syt, as 'beginning' and 'wisdom.' For creation of the world by/in wisdom, cf. Prov 8:22; 3:19; Wis 9:9; Ps 104:24. Rabbinic tradition, identifying wisdom and the Torah, speaks of God creating the world by the Torah; 'eginning = torah, Gen. Rabbah 1.4: “In the beginning by means of the Torah God created”

“the Memra of the Lord”; text of Nf has: “the son of the Lord,” br’dYYY, which is due most probably to a late, even sixteenth-century, correction. However, in Christian tradition from earliest times the opening word of Genesis was understood to mean “in the Son”; see Jerome, Hebr. quaest., in Gen 1:1"

McNamara, Martin Targum Neofiti 1, Genesis (p. 52) Liturgical Press, 1992

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.

Additional Notes:

'Memra' is commonly translated as 'Word'.

"'From the beginning with wisdom': double translation of HT br’syt, as 'beginning' and 'wisdom.' For creation of the world by/in wisdom, cf. Prov 8:22; 3:19; Wis 9:9; Ps 104:24. Rabbinic tradition, identifying wisdom and the Torah, speaks of God creating the world by the Torah; 'eginning = torah, Gen. Rabbah 1.4: “In the beginning by means of the Torah God created”

“the Memra of the Lord”; text of Nf has: “the son of the Lord,” br’dYYY, which is due most probably to a late, even sixteenth-century, correction. However, in Christian tradition from earliest times the opening word of Genesis was understood to mean “in the Son”; see Jerome, Hebr. quaest., in Gen 1:1"

McNamara, Martin Targum Neofiti 1, Genesis (p. 52) Liturgical Press, 1992

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.

Additional Notes:

'Memra' is commonly translated as 'Word'.