Exodus 7:13

Hebrew Bible

11 Then Pharaoh also summoned wise men and sorcerers, and the magicians of Egypt by their secret arts did the same thing. 12 Each man threw down his staff, and the staffs became snakes. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs. 13 Yet Pharaoh’s heart became hard, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted. 14 The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is hard; he refuses to release the people. 15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning when he goes out to the water. Position yourself to meet him by the edge of the Nile, and take in your hand the staff that was turned into a snake.

Job 9:4

Hebrew Bible

2 “Truly, I know that this is so. But how can a human be just before God? 3 If someone wishes to contend with him, he cannot answer him one time in a thousand. 4 He is wise in heart and mighty in strength—who has resisted him and remained safe? 5 He who removes mountains suddenly, who overturns them in his anger, 6 he who shakes the earth out of its place so that its pillars tremble,

 Notes and References

"... Ancient Hebrew uses a number of synonyms to describe the ‘hardening' of the 'heart' ... Biblical writers universally presume that the decision to harden one’s heart against God is both futile and dangerous (e.g. 'Who has hardened himself against him and prospered?' Job 9:4). But when the deity himself decides to harden the hearts of human individuals this invariably generates various degrees of theodical concern. Philosopher-theologians tend to explain this behavior as part of a 'biblical doctrine of reprobation.' That is, Yahweh’s decision to harden Pharaoh’s heart (Exodus 4–14) cannot and should not be interpreted apart from his parallel decision to 'love Jacob and hate Esau' (Malachi 1:2–3). Among others, the Apostle Paul defends this behavior as an example of divine sovereignty, not caprice (Romans 9:15; Philo, On Flight and Finding 124). Biblical scholars, however, tend to see rather complex histories behind these so-called 'reprobation' texts. A few interpret the character of 'Pharaoh' as an eponym for 'Egypt', but most source critics view the plagues narrative (Exodus 4–14) as the product of a multi-staged development in which an early tradent (Yahwist?) portrays Pharaoh making his own heart 'heavy' in his futile attempt to understand ..."

Evans, Craig A Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus (pp. 427-428) Routledge, 2008

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