Exodus 34:29

Hebrew Bible

27 The Lord said to Moses, “Write down these words, for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel.” 28 So he was there with the Lord 40 days and 40 nights; he did not eat bread, and he did not drink water. He wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the Ten Commandments. 29 Now when Moses came down from Mount Sinai with the two tablets of the testimony in his hand—when he came down from the mountain, Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone while he talked with him. 30 When Aaron and all the Israelites saw Moses, the skin of his face shone, and they were afraid to approach him. 31 But Moses called to them, so Aaron and all the leaders of the community came back to him, and Moses spoke to them. Source

Date: 5th Century B.C.E. (Final composition) (based on scholarly estimates)

Habakkuk 3:4

Hebrew Bible

2 Lord, I have heard the report of what you did; I am awed, Lord, by what you accomplished. In our time repeat those deeds; in our time reveal them again. But when you cause turmoil, remember to show us mercy! 3 God comes from Teman, the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His splendor has covered the skies, the earth is full of his glory. 4 His brightness will be as lightning; a two-pronged lightning bolt flashing from his hand. This is the outward display of his power. 5 Plague will go before him; pestilence will march right behind him. 6 He took his battle position and shook the earth; with a mere look he frightened the nations. The ancient mountains disintegrated; the primeval hills were flattened. His are ancient roads. Source

Date: 6th Century B.C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

"... First, it should be noted that while in the Hebrew Bible the noun ןֶ רֶ ק is nowhere used with the sense of “rays” or “light,” in the immediate context of Hab 3:4 some sort of luminary imagery, paralleling נגה and הוד in the preceding cola, seems apposite. Consequently, קרנים in Hab 3:4 has often been compared to the cognate verb ןַ רָ ק in Exod 34:29–30. The interpretation of this verb has also attracted much attention, with opinion divided between those who understand it to mean that the skin of Moses’ face spouted horns, and those who understand it to mean the skin of Moses’ face had a shining appearance."

Wearne, Gareth Reading Habakkuk 3:4 and Deuteronomy 33:2 in Light of One Another (pp. 1-10) Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism, 2014

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.

"... First, it should be noted that while in the Hebrew Bible the noun ןֶ רֶ ק is nowhere used with the sense of “rays” or “light,” in the immediate context of Hab 3:4 some sort of luminary imagery, paralleling נגה and הוד in the preceding cola, seems apposite. Consequently, קרנים in Hab 3:4 has often been compared to the cognate verb ןַ רָ ק in Exod 34:29–30. The interpretation of this verb has also attracted much attention, with opinion divided between those who understand it to mean that the skin of Moses’ face spouted horns, and those who understand it to mean the skin of Moses’ face had a shining appearance."

Wearne, Gareth Reading Habakkuk 3:4 and Deuteronomy 33:2 in Light of One Another (pp. 1-10) Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism, 2014

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.