Exodus 20:5

Hebrew Bible

3 “You shall have no other gods before me. 4 “You shall not make for yourself a carved image or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above or that is on the earth beneath or that is in the water below. 5 You shall not bow down to them or serve them, for I, the Lord, your God, am a jealous God, responding to the transgression of fathers by dealing with children to the third and fourth generations of those who reject me, 6 and showing covenant faithfulness to a thousand generations of those who love me and keep my commandments. 7 “You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain, for the Lord will not hold guiltless anyone who takes his name in vain.

Nahum 1:2

Hebrew Bible

1 This is an oracle about Nineveh; the book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite: 2 The Lord is a zealous and avenging God; the Lord is avenging and very angry. The Lord takes vengeance against his foes; he sustains his rage against his enemies. 3 The Lord is slow to anger but great in power; the Lord will certainly not allow the wicked to go unpunished. He marches out in the whirlwind and the raging storm; dark storm clouds billow like dust under his feet. 4 He shouts a battle cry against the sea and makes it dry up; he makes all the rivers run dry. Bashan and Carmel wither; the blossom of Lebanon withers.

 Notes and References

"... Exodus 34:6-7 constitutes a formulaic expression in which YHWH describes himself as visiting the sins of the father upon the sons; it is reiterated in the Decalogue (Exodus 20:5-6; Deuteronomy 5:9-10). Although this passage is quoted in various ways in many places in the Bible (Exodus 20:5-6; Deuteronomy 5:9-10; Numbers 14:18; Joel 2:13; Nahum 1:2-3; Micah 7:18-20; etc...), none of the wisdom books quotes it directly. Nevertheless, some scholars have posited a connection between Exodus 34:6-7 and the wisdom tradition because of overlapping language and shared values. Is this formula a product of the wisdom tradition? What role, if any, did the worldview of Israelite wisdom literature play in the creation and likely liturgical use of this formula describing YHWH as a deity who executes collective punishment and reward? ..."

Kapfer, Hilary Claire Collective Accountability among the Sages of Ancient Israel (pp. 191-192) Harvard University, 2013

 User Comments

Do you have questions or comments about these texts? Please submit them here.