1 The Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, in order to display these signs of mine before him, 2 and in order that in the hearing of your son and your grandson you may tell how I made fools of the Egyptians and about my signs that I displayed among them, so that you may know that I am the Lord.” 3 So Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh and told him, “This is what the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has said: ‘How long do you refuse to humble yourself before me? Release my people so that they may serve me! 4 But if you refuse to release my people, I am going to bring locusts into your territory tomorrow.
1 This is the Lord’s message that came to Joel the son of Pethuel: 2 Listen to this, you elders; pay attention, all inhabitants of the land. Has anything like this ever happened in your whole life or in the lifetime of your ancestors? 3 Tell your children about it; have your children tell their children, and their children the following generation. 4 What the gazam-locust left the ‘arbeh-locust consumed; what the ‘arbeh-locust left the yeleq-locust consumed, and what the yeleq-locust left the hasil-locust consumed.
Notes and References
"... The use in Joel of the locust plague from Exodus 10:1-20 has already been noted by scholars. Bergler's recent dissertation studies the extensive intertextual relationships between Joel and the Exodus narrative, including parallels in Joel 1:3; 2:26-27 and Exodus 10:1,2 concerning YHWH's self-identification and the instruction to the people to tell their children about YHWH's actions; Joel 2:19, 25 and Exodus 10:4 concerning the motif of "sending"; Joel 1:4; 2:25 and Exodus 10:5,12,15 concerning the devouring of the remnant or what is left over; Joel 1:2; 2:2 and Exodus 10:6, 14 concerning the threat posed by the locusts to houses that has not been seen since the days of the people's ancestors; Joel 2:20 and Exodus 10:17, 19 concerning YHWH's capacity to remove the threat from the land; and Joel 3:3^1 and the general pattern of signs and wonders in the Exodus ..."
Sweeney, Marvin A. Form and Intertextuality in Prophetic and Apocalyptic Literature (p. 199) Mohr Siebeck, 2020
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