Exodus 1:19

Hebrew Bible

17 But the midwives feared God and did not do what the king of Egypt had told them; they let the boys live. 18 Then the king of Egypt summoned the midwives and said to them, “Why have you done this and let the boys live?” 19 The midwives said to Pharaoh, “Because the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women—for the Hebrew women are vigorous; they give birth before the midwife gets to them!” 20 So God treated the midwives well, and the people multiplied and became very strong. 21 And because the midwives feared God, he made households for them. Source

Date: 5th Century B.C.E. (Final composition) (based on scholarly estimates)

Pseudo Jonathan Exodus 1:19

Targum

And the king of Mizraim called the midwives, and said to them, Why have you done this thing, and have saved the children? And the mid-wives said to Pharoh, The Jehudith women are not as the Mizraite, for they are sturdy and wise-minded: before the midwife cometh to them they lift up their eyes in prayer, supplicating mercy before their Father who is in heaven, who heareth the voice of their prayer, and at once they are heard, and bring forth, and are delivered in peace. And the Lord did good to the midwives, and the people multiplied and prevailed greatly. And forasmuch as the midwives feared before the Lord, they obtained for themselves a good name unto the ages; and the Word of the Lord up-builded for them a royal house, even the house of the high priesthood. But when Pharoh saw this, he commanded all his people, saying, Every male child that is born to the Jehudaee you shall cast into the river; but every daughter you may spare. Source

Date: 300-1200 C.E. (based on scholarly estimates)

"... I have found a total of thirteen occurrences of the expression "Father in heaven" in the Palestinian targums: three in Pseudo-Jonathan, seven in the Fragment Targums and three in Neofiti. ... In only one instance (Exodus 1:19; prayer to Father in heaven) do all three representatives of the Palestinian Targum carry this particular designation of God."

McNamara, Martin Targum and Testament Revisited Aramaic Paraphrases of the Hebrew Bible: A Light on the New Testament (p. 180) William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2010

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.

"... I have found a total of thirteen occurrences of the expression "Father in heaven" in the Palestinian targums: three in Pseudo-Jonathan, seven in the Fragment Targums and three in Neofiti. ... In only one instance (Exodus 1:19; prayer to Father in heaven) do all three representatives of the Palestinian Targum carry this particular designation of God."

McNamara, Martin Targum and Testament Revisited Aramaic Paraphrases of the Hebrew Bible: A Light on the New Testament (p. 180) William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2010

* The use of references are not endorsements of their contents. Please read the entirety of the provided reference(s) to understand the author's full intentions regarding the use of these texts.