6 Is this how you repay the Lord, you foolish, unwise people? Is he not your father, your Creator? He has made you and established you. 7 Remember the ancient days; bear in mind the years of past generations. Ask your father and he will inform you, your elders, and they will tell you. 8 When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, when he divided up humankind, he set the boundaries of the peoples, according to the number of the heavenly assembly. 9 For the Lord’s allotment is his people, Jacob is his special possession. 10 The Lord found him in a desolate land, in an empty wasteland where animals howl. He continually guarded him and taught him; he continually protected him like the pupil of his eye.
3 He will arbitrate between many peoples and settle disputes between many distant nations. They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nations will not use weapons against other nations, and they will no longer train for war. 4 Each will sit under his own grapevine or under his own fig tree without any fear. The Lord of Heaven’s Armies has decreed it. 5 Though all the nations follow their respective gods, we will follow the Lord our God forever. 6 “In that day,” says the Lord, “I will gather the lame and assemble the outcasts whom I injured. 7 I will transform the lame into the nucleus of a new nation and those far off into a mighty nation. The Lord will reign over them on Mount Zion, from that day forward and forevermore.
Notes and References
"... If one excludes the case of Zoroaster, which is debatable and much debated, Second Isaiah is the first monotheist we know of. Traditionally, even those who insisted that Israelites must worship Yahweh alone accepted that the gods of other peoples were real gods, with real powers, and deserving of worship. The eighth-century prophet Micah summarised the situation with admirable concision: 'All the peoples may walk, each in the name of its god, but we will walk in the name of Yahweh our God for ever and ever.' The Book of Judges was written in the sixth century - and it still has an Israelite warrior say to the king of a neighbouring people: 'Will you not possess what Chemosh your god gives you to possess? And all that Yahweh our God has dispossessed before us, we will possess.' ..."
Cohn, Norman Cosmos, Chaos, and the World to Come: The Ancient Roots of Apocalyptic Faith (p. 152) Yale University Press, 2001