1QS 1

Community Rule
Dead Sea Scrolls

1 [The Master shall teach the sai]nts to live {according to the Book} of the Community [Rul]e, that they may seek God with a whole heart and soul, and do what is good and right before Him as He commanded by the hand of Moses and all His servants the Prophets; that they may love all that He has chosen and hate all that He has rejected; that they may abstain from all evil and hold fast to all good; that they may practise truth, righteousness, and justice upon earth and no longer stubbornly follow a sinful heart and lustful eyes, committing all manner of evil. 2 He shall admit into the Covenant of Grace all those who have freely devoted themselves to the observance of God's precepts, that they may be joined to the counsel of God and may live perfectly before Him in accordance with all that has been revealed concerning their appointed times, and that they may love all the sons of light, each according to his lot in God's design, and hate all the sons of darkness, each according to his guilt in God's vengeance.

Matthew 5:43

New Testament

43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor’ and ‘hate your enemy.’ 44 But I say to you, love your enemy and pray for those who persecute you, 45 so that you may be like your Father in heaven, since he causes the sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. 46 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Even the tax collectors do the same, don’t they? 47 And if you only greet your brothers, what more do you do? Even the Gentiles do the same, don’t they? 48 So then, be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.

 Notes and References

"... The key to understanding the religious and historical nuances of broad sections of the Sermon on the Mount, specifically Matthew 5:17, lies in Matthew 5:43. This verse reads, 'You have heard that it has been said, "You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy," But I say unto you, "Love your enemy."' It begs the question, who were these listeners that were told to hate their enemies? Such a command is not found anywhere in the entire Jewish tradition, and even less in the Old Testament. It seems likely, however, that this concept might be traced back to the writings of the Qumran sect, widely associated with the Essene movement. The sect's documents contain instructions for members to 'love everyone whom God has elected, and to hate everyone whom He has rejected'. Other excerpts speak of the duty of God's chosen ones to 'redeem the earth and repay the wicked' and of 'an eternal hatred towards all men of destruction'. It is clear from these documents that the sect's understanding of hatred for enemies had an eschatological character ..."

Schubert, Kurt "The Sermon on the Mount and the Qumran Texts" in Stendahl, Krister & James H. Charlesworth, ed., The Scrolls and the New Testament (pp. 118-128) Harper & Brothers, 1957

 User Comments

Do you have questions or comments about these texts? Please submit them here.