1 Kings 22:19

Hebrew Bible

17 Micaiah said, “I saw all Israel scattered on the mountains like sheep that have no shepherd. Then the Lord said, ‘They have no master. They should go home in peace.’” 18 The king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “Didn’t I tell you he does not prophesy prosperity for me, but disaster?” 19 Micaiah said, “That being the case, listen to the Lord’s message. I saw the Lord sitting on his throne, with all the heavenly assembly standing beside him on his right and on his left. 20 The Lord said, ‘Who will deceive Ahab, so he will attack Ramoth Gilead and die there?’ One said this and another that. 21 Then a spirit stepped forward and stood before the Lord. He said, ‘I will deceive him.’

Psalm 82:1

Hebrew Bible

1 A psalm of Asaph. God stands in the assembly of El; in the midst of the gods he renders judgment. 2 He says, “How long will you make unjust legal decisions and show favoritism to the wicked? (Selah) 3 Defend the cause of the poor and the fatherless. Vindicate the oppressed and suffering. 4 Rescue the poor and needy. Deliver them from the power of the wicked. 5 They neither know nor understand. They stumble around in the dark, while all the foundations of the earth crumble.

 Notes and References

"... Scholarship on the origin of archangels has identified a number of explanations for their emergence within Hellenistic Judaism. One suggestion is that archangels evolved from earlier, polytheistic Jewish conceptions of the gods considered subordinate to Yahweh. For angels appear to function in ways that are similar to the divine beings of the heavenly council or court of the high God (e.g., Psalm 82:1; 1 Kings 22:19). Such a development fits with the theologically motivated early textual emendations of some biblical references (e.g., in Deuteronomy 32:8, “the sons of [the] God(s)” are appointed over each nation according to 4QDeut, but “angels of God” in the Septuagint) ..."

Galbraith, Deane "The Origin of Archangels: Idealogical Mystification of Nobility" in Myles, Robert J. (ed.) Class Struggle in the New Testament (pp. 209-240) Fortress Academic, 2019

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