1 Enoch 61:9


8 And the Lord of Spirits placed the Elect one on the throne of glory. And he shall judge all the works of the holy above in the heaven, And in the balance shall their deeds be weighed 9 And when he shall lift up his countenance To judge their secret ways according to the word of the name of the Lord of Spirits, And their path according to the way of the righteous judgement of the Lord of Spirits, Then shall they all with one voice speak and bless, And glorify and extol and sanctify the name of the Lord of Spirits. 10 And He will summon all the host of the heavens, and all the holy ones above, and the host of God, the Cherubic, Seraphin and Ophannin, and all the angels of power, and all the angels of principalities, and the Elect One, and the other powers on the earth (and) over the water. 11 On that day shall raise one voice, and bless and glorify and exalt in the spirit of faith, and in the spirit of wisdom, and in the spirit of patience, and in the spirit of mercy, and in the spirit of judgement and of peace, and in the spirit of goodness, and shall all say with one voice: "Blessed is He, and may the name of the Lord of Spirits be blessed for ever and ever."

2 Maccabees 3:24


21 There was something pitiable in the prostration of the whole populace and the anxiety of the high priest in his great anguish. 22 While they were calling upon the Almighty Lord that he would keep what had been entrusted safe and secure for those who had entrusted it, 23 Heliodorus went on with what had been decided. 24 But when he arrived at the treasury with his bodyguard, then and there the Sovereign of spirits and of all authority caused so great a manifestation that all who had been so bold as to accompany him were astounded by the power of God, and became faint with terror. 25 For there appeared to them a magnificently caparisoned horse, with a rider of frightening mien; it rushed furiously at Heliodorus and struck at him with its front hoofs. Its rider was seen to have armor and weapons of gold.

 Notes and References

"... Paul was at pains to emphasize the spiritual and wicked nature of these powers. In Ephesians 1:21, he states that the resurrected and enthroned Christ is seated above all archē kai exousia kai dunamis kai kuriotētos kai pantos onomatos (“rule and authority, power and dominion, and every title that can be given”, NIV). And this elevation to the highest place of honour applies “not only in the present age but also in the one to come”. The supreme exaltation of Christ is therefore complete in both time and space, both vertically and horizontally. Archē, which is translated by the NIV as “rule” and by the KJV as “principality”, means the beginner or first person, chief, the original or active cause of something in a place. It occurs only once in the Septuagint, in Jeremiah 13:18 where it is associated with the king, queen mother, greatness and glory. In this sense, archē is related to political rule and authority, which influences human events, actions and belief systems. The term is however used in the pseudepigraphic book of 2 Enoch 20-22 for angelic beings. 2 Enoch 20:1, for example, lists four of the terms used by Paul in Ephesians 1:21 among ten ranks of angels in the seventh heaven. Similarly, 1 Enoch 61:10 describes how “the Lord of Spirits” will “summon all the host of the heavens, and all the holy ones above, and the host of God, the Cherubic, Seraphim and Ophannim, and all the angels of power, and all the angels of principalities” (compare 2 Mac 3:24, Testament of Levi 3). Hendrik Berkhof is therefore also right when he concludes that in the inter-testamental apocalyptic literature, archē is used for the “classes of angels located in the lower and higher heavens” ..."

Asumang, Annang Powers of Darkness: An Evaluation of Three Hermeneutical Approaches to the Evil Powers in Ephesians (pp. 1-19) Conspectus: The Journal of South Afrian Theological Seminary, Vol. 5, 2008

 User Comments

Do you have questions or comments about these texts? Please submit them here.